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Parental self-efficacy refers to parents' beliefs in their ability to successfully parent their child. Parental self-efficacy plays an important role in family outcomes when a child has autism spectrum disorder. It is important to consider therapeutic self-efficacy, one’s feelings of self-efficacy regarding their implementation of an intervention, within parent-mediated interventions. The goal of this mixed methods study was to better understand factors that relate to parents' therapeutic self-efficacy when using a telehealth-based parent-mediated intervention. Participants were 51 parents of children with autism spectrum disorder between 17 and 83 months old. Parents had generally high therapeutic self-efficacy, and global parental self-efficacy was significantly related therapeutic self-efficacy. Parents' written reflections revealed four themes that related to their therapeutic self-efficacy: the importance of a good fit between the child’s skills and the intervention, the importance of a good fit between the parent’s interaction style and the intervention, environmental factors support intervention use, and the importance of the child’s response to the intervention. Several themes differed for parents with higher and lower therapeutic self-efficacy. Findings suggest that global parental self-efficacy plays an important role in parental therapeutic self-efficacy in parent-mediated interventions. To support parents in learning, coaches should ask about the child’s skills, parent’s interaction style, environmental challenges, and child’s response.

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This paper evaluates whether participation in the Thinking for a Change cognitive behavioral program produces improvement in social problemsolving skills in a prison context. Data are derived from a randomized experiment, with a focus on whether improvement in social problemsolving skills varies across modified delivery formats, and whether improvements are attributable to program completion or program dosage. We find that there are significant improvements in social problem solving between the pre- and post-test, and that delivery of the curriculum using video conferencing technology or inmate co-facilitated formats produces equivalent outcomes relative to traditional classroom administration. On average, significant improvements accrue to participants who receive greater program dosage. However, program completion, commonly viewed as a primary marker of satisfactory program performance, is not associated with improvement in social problem solving. Implications of the findings for rehabilitation programming are discussed, including considerations in a pandemic context.

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Research has suggested that patients with depression have deficits in social cognition, however they provide limited data regarding adolescent depression. Moreover, the relationship of social cognition with clinical features and quality of life is less studied. This study investigated social cognition in depressive adolescents and the correlations of social cognition with clinical features and quality of life. Thirty-five depressed adolescents and 37 healthy controls were assessed. Emotion perception and decoding ToM, quality of life and clinical variables were evaluated. No significant differences were found between depression and control groups regarding social cognitive tests. The results indicated that examined clinical features were not correlated significantly with social cognitive tests. Results suggest that social cognitive abilities are not disturbed in adolescents with first depressive episode.

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To review the pharmacological characteristics, clinical evidence, and place in therapy of satralizumab for the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs).

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To report optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) findings in a case of immune choroiditis following contralateral acute retinal necrosis (ARN) with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) during anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy.

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Statutory rape laws are intended to protect adolescents from harm as a result of sexual activity with older individuals. In this pursuit, many, but far from all, states' statutory rape laws differentiate younger and older offenders. In effect, many of these states differentiate offenders who are 21 and older from those who are under 21. It is unknown, however, whether and how the dynamics of statutory rape vary depending on the age of the offender. To explore the contribution of offender age to the dynamics of statutory rape, data were collected from the records of 105 statutory rape cases referred to a child abuse assessment center over a 63-month period. Records included detailed reports on case history and victims' family history, mental health and health-risking behaviors, medical examination results, and forensic interview summaries. Cases of offenders11.Because these cases are under investigation, “offenders” here refers to “suspects.” For ease of reading, we use “offenders” to be consistent with prior research terminology. under 21 were compared to the cases of offenders 21 years and older. Compared to cases of younger offenders, cases of offenders 21 years and older more often involved slightly older adolescent victims. Independent of age, victims with offenders 21 and over compared with offenders under 21 were over six times as likely to have a prior history of a high, versus low, number of psychosocial problems and were seven times more likely to experience multiple forms of coercion versus no coercion by the offender. Findings suggest that statutory rape prevention, policy and response strategies should consider the critical ways that case characteristics and victims differ according to this key offender attribute.

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Neuroimaging research has identified a network of brain regions that are more active when we daydream compared to when we are engaged in a task. This network has been named the default mode network. Furthermore, differences in the default mode network are the most consistent findings in neuroimaging research in autism. Recent studies suggest that the default mode network is composed of subnetworks that are tied to different functions, namely memory and understanding others' minds. In this study, we investigated if default mode network differences in autism are related to specific subnetworks of the default mode network and if these differences change across childhood and adolescence. Our results suggest that the subnetworks of the default mode network are less differentiated in autism in middle childhood compared to neurotypicals. By late adolescence, the default mode network subnetwork organisation was similar in the autistic and neurotypical groups. These findings provide a foundation for future studies to investigate if this developmental pattern relates to improvements in the integration of memory and social understanding as autistic children grow up.

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To compare the clinical findings and outcomes of vitrectomy for lamellar macular holes (LMH) versus epiretinal membrane foveoschisis (ERMF).

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The two cysteine proteases from the coronaviruses, which produced deadly outbreaks in the last two decades, SARS CoV-½ and MERS, the main protease (Mpro) and the papain-like protease (PLP) are conserved among the three pathogens and started to be considered as exciting drug targets for developing antivirals.

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Recent studies indicate that the perpetration of intimate partner violence via cyberspaces (cyber IPV), namely, psychological aggression, sexual aggression, and cyberstalking is high among emerging adults. However, little is known of the risk factors that lead to cyber IPV and far lesser within Hispanic adults. Based on the intergenerational transmission of violence hypothesis, the present study examined the indirect effect of witnessing parental violence during childhood on the three types of cyber IPV through attitudes condoning IPV in Hispanic men and women, separately. Participants were 1,136 Hispanic emerging adults in the age range of 18-29 years (M = 20.53 years, SD = 2.42; 72.5% women, 88% Mexican descent). Over half of the participants (54.2%) witnessed at least one instance of parental violence during childhood. In contrast to women, men were more likely to hold attitudes accepting of IPV and perpetrate cyber sexual IPV, whereas women were more likely to report cyberstalking perpetration. Men and women with exposure to mother-to-father violence held attitudes justifying IPV that was associated with perpetrating the three cyber IPV types in adulthood (women: Brange = .016-.036; men: Brange = .016-.024). No significant gender differences were found in the associations of mother-to-father WPV and father-to-mother WPV on the three types of cyber IPV perpetration. These findings are discussed in the context of Hispanic culture, which has specific implications for cyber IPV intervention strategies.