SciCombinator

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Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome is a rare adverse drug reaction associated with aromatic anticonvulsant drugs. This syndrome can range from mild cutaneous rash to drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms that include fever, rash, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia, and involvement of multiple internal organs. We aimed to report this case in the literature and make physicians aware of the uncommon symptoms of this syndrome when they prescribe antiepileptic medications in particular.

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With the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) approvals for Zolgensma, Luxturna, and Glybera, recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) are considered efficient tools for gene transfer. However, studies in animals and humans demonstrate that intramuscular (IM) AAV delivery can trigger immune responses to AAV capsids and/or transgenes. IM delivery of rAAV1 in humans has also been described to induce tolerance to rAAV characterized by the presence of capsid-specific regulatory T cells (Tregs) in periphery. To understand mechanisms responsible for tolerance and parameters involved, we tested 3 muscle-directed administration routes in rhesus monkeys: IM delivery, venous limb perfusion, and the intra-arterial push and dwell method. These 3 methods were well tolerated and led to transgene expression. Interestingly, gene transfer in muscle led to Tregs and exhausted T cell infiltrates in situ at both day 21 and day 60 post-injection. In human samples, an in-depth analysis of the functionality of these cells demonstrates that capsid-specific exhausted T cells are detected after at least 5 years post-vector delivery and that the exhaustion can be reversed by blocking the checkpoint pathway. Overall, our study shows that persisting transgene expression after gene transfer in muscle is mediated by Tregs and exhausted T cells.

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Polycythaemia vera is a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterised by excessive proliferation of erythroid, myeloid, and megakaryocytic components in the bone marrow due to mutations in the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) gene. Ruxolitinib, a JAK 1 and JAK 2 inhibitor, showed superiority over best available therapy in a phase 2 study in patients with polycythaemia vera who were resistant to or intolerant of hydroxyurea. We aimed to compare the long-term safety and efficacy of ruxolitinib with best available therapy in patients with polycythaemia vera who were resistant to or intolerant of hydroxyurea.

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To develop an accurate understanding of outcomes for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) to inform parental counseling, clinical care, and research agendas.

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To examine factors that may affect nutritional status in adolescents with esophageal atresia.

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Papillomavirus (HPV), the first sexually transmitted disease in the world, is the main infectious agent responsible for cancer (6300 per year, in France). The cycle of HPV infection - >precancerous lesions - >cancer is well documented with regard to the cervix (cf. Nobel Prize in 2008). While this area is the most frequent (3000), it is far from being the only one. Other cancers include the anus, oropharyngeal sphere, glans and vulva. The sum of these other induced HPV cancers is greater than the total number of cervical cancers and also concerns boys. Screening is essential but insufficient and only concerns the cervix. Only vaccination can provide primary and general prevention. Since 2007, there have been many studies demonstrating its excellent efficacy and tolerance. However, France lags behind other countries with a vaccination coverage (<30 %) that does not allow for an epidemiological impact.

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Analysis of comparative effectiveness uses different metrics to ensure that a new treatment is both effective and economical. However, there is a lack of financial frameworks to estimate the costs of introducing new technologies in medical and surgical education.

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Failure to Rescue (FTR) is a valuable surgical quality improvement metric. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between center volume and FTR following lung transplantation.

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Competency-based frameworks are common in surgical training. However, the optimal use of standardized technical assessments is not well defined. We investigated the effect of rater training (RT) on the reliability and validity of four assessment tools.

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Sheep, pigs and goats are the most commonly used large animals for preclinical spinal applications. However, there is an increasing number of voices challenging the suitability of quadrupeds, as the obvious postural differences give reason to presume significant differences in the spinal kinematics compared to humans. Rather, it is often questioned if primates did not represent the more suitable experimental animals due to their ability to bipedal walking. Both perspectives, however, have never been systematically addressed. Therefore, the present paper reviews the existing literature on in vivo spinal kinematics of quadrupeds, primates and humans during walking and critically discusses the comparability between these species. Surprisingly, no studies were found for sheep, pigs or goats. Instead, the literature search yielded 50 studies on quadrupeds, horses (n = 37) and dogs (n = 13), primates (n = 10) and humans (n = 61). In general, the kinematic data revealed a high level of heterogeneity and often demonstrated methodological deficits, e.g., insufficient number of measured animals. More kinematic variables were comparable between humans and quadrupeds than between humans and primates. Differences in spinal characteristics, however, could also be found amongst quadrupeds themselves (horse vs. dog). In conclusion, using of a particular animal species as a model for spine research requires its characterization. Cross-species extrapolations are ineligible. Furthermore, the review revealed significant differences between the bipedal walk of primates and humans. The gait alone thus does not constitute a valid argument for the superiority of primates over quadrupeds as experimental animal models for human spine research.