Journal: The World Allergy Organization journal
The burden of disease of food allergy is increasing worldwide. The standard of management is allergen avoidance and symptomatic treatment. Probiotics have been proposed to be beneficial for treatment and prevention of food allergy.
Routine immunization, one of the most effective public health interventions, has effectively reduced death and morbidity due to a variety of infectious diseases. However, allergic reactions to vaccines occur very rarely and can be life threatening. Given the large numbers of vaccines administered worldwide, there is a need for an international consensus regarding the evaluation and management of allergic reactions to vaccines.
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy that presents with delayed vomiting after ingestion primarily in infants. While the pathophysiology of FPIES is poorly understood, the clinical presentation of acute FPEIS reactions has been well characterized. The firstInternational Consensus Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Food Protein-induced Enterocolitis Syndromewere published in 2017 and reviewed epidemiology, clinical presentation, and prognosis of acute and chronic FPIES. The workgroup outlined clinical phenotypes, proposed diagnostic criteria, and made recommendations on management. This article summarizes the guidelines and adds recent updates. FPIES is gaining recognition, however there continues to be delays in diagnosis and misdiagnosis due to overlap of symptoms with over conditions, lack of a diagnostic test, and because some of the common trigger foods are not thought of as allergenic. More research into disease mechanisms and factors influencing differences between populations is needed.
Since mite allergens are the most relevant inducers of allergic diseases worldwide, resulting in significant morbidity and increased burden on health services, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), formed by the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI), the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), and the World Allergy Organization (WAO), has proposed to issue an International Consensus (ICON) on the clinical consequences of mite hypersensitivity. The objectives of this document are to highlight aspects of mite biology that are clinically relevant, to update the current knowledge on mite allergens, routes of sensitization, the genetics of IgE responses to mites, the epidemiologic aspects of mite hypersensitivity, the clinical pictures induced by mites, the diagnosis, specific immunotherapeutic approaches, and prevention.
The impact on health related quality of life (HRQL) has been well studied in children with Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy. However limited data exists on related quality of life (QOL) of families who have a child suffering from food protein induced non-IgE mediated gastrointestinal allergies. We aimed to establish the QOL of families with children at the beginning of following an elimination diet for non-IgE mediated gastrointestinal food allergies.
Our knowledge of allergen structure and function continues to rise and new scientific data on the homology and cross-reactivity of allergen sources should be considered to extend the work of Lorenz et al., 2009 (Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 148(1):1-1, 2009) and the concept of homologous groups. In addition to this, sophisticated techniques such as mass spectrometry (MS) are increasingly utilised to better characterise the complex mix and nature of allergen extracts.
Allergic diseases are distributed worldwide and their risk factors and triggers vary according to geographical and socioeconomic conditions. Allergies are frequent in the Tropics but aspects of their prevalence, natural history, risk factors, sensitizers and triggers are not well defined and some are expected to be different from those in temperate zone countries. The aim of this review is to investigate if allergic diseases in the Tropics have particularities that deserve special attention for research and clinical practice. Such information will help to form a better understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of allergic diseases in the Tropics. As expected, we found particularities in the Tropics that merit further study because they strongly affect the natural history of common allergic diseases; most of them related to climate conditions that favor permanent exposure to mite allergens, helminth infections and stinging insects. In addition, we detected several unmet needs in important areas which should be investigated and solved by collaborative efforts led by the emergent research groups on allergy from tropical countries.
Consumption of baked egg by raw egg allergic children is associated with immune changes suggesting development of tolerance. However, causation has not been tested using a double blind randomized controlled trial (RCT). We aimed to compare clinical and immunological outcomes after baked egg (BE) consumption in young BE tolerant egg allergic children.
Every fifth pregnant woman is affected by allergies, especially rhinitis and asthma. Allergic symptoms existing before pregnancy may be either attenuated, or equally often promoted through pregnancy. Optimal allergy and asthma diagnosis and management during pregnancy is vital to ensure the welfare of mother and baby. For allergy diagnosis in pregnancy, preferentially anamnestic investigation as well as in vitro testing should be applied, whereas skin testing or provocation tests should be postponed until after birth. Pregnant women with confirmed allergy should avoid exposure to, or consumption of the offending allergen. Allergen immunotherapy should not be initiated during pregnancy. In patients on immunotherapy since before pregnancy, maintenance treatment may be continued, but the allergen dose should not be increased further. Applicable medications for asthma, rhinitis or skin symptoms in pregnancy are discussed and listed. In conclusion, i) allergies in pregnancy should preferentially be diagnosed in vitro; ii) AIT may be continued, but not started, and symptomatic medications must be carefully selected; iii) management of asthma and allergic diseases is important during pregnancy for welfare of mother and child.
There is no data on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children with non-immunoglobulin-E (IgE) mediated gastrointestinal food allergy. The aims of our study were to understand the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in children with non-IgE mediated gastrointestinal food allergy and identify predisposing factors.