Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: The neuroradiology journal


This study evaluated the sensitivity of susceptibility-weighted angiography (SWAN) compared with gradient echo (GRE) sequence in the depiction of haemorrhagic and calcium lesions by virtue of correlation analysis between the number, area and contrast index. The study included 21 patients (15 women, 6 men; age range 18 to 80 years) in whom intracranial haemorrhage or calcifications were previously diagnosed with CT and/or MR. GRE and SWAN sequences were performed as part of a conventional Brain MR study using a 3T scanner. Pathologic findings were: cavernoma (n=8), chronic intraparenchymal haemorrhage (n=5), petechial bleeding (n=3), parenchymal calcifications (n=2), sequelae of haemorrhagic contusion focus (n=1), post-surgical glioma (n=1) and venous angioma (n=1). In eight patients, more lesions were found in the SWAN sequence than in GRE. In the measurement of the largest area, in all cases the measured area was larger in the SWAN sequence than in GRE. The SWAN sequence was reported to have shown higher contrast between the lesion and the healthy white matter than in GRE. The SWAN sequence is more sensitive than GRE in the identification of cerebral haemorrhage and calcifications. The SWAN sequence also obtained significantly larger images than with GRE, and a higher contrast difference between the lesion and the healthy parenchyma.

Concepts: Cerebral hemorrhage, Subarachnoid hemorrhage, Intracranial hemorrhage, Bruise, Bleeding, Blood


Unfortunately, the affiliations of the authors were incorrectly listed as (1) Neuroradiology Department, IRCCS Neurological Sciences, Bellaria Hospital, University of Bologna; Bologna, Italy and (2) Neurosurgery Department, IRCCS Neurological Sciences, Bellaria Hospital, University of Bologna; Bologna, Italy instead of (1) Neuroradiology Department, IRCCS Institute of Neurological Sciences, Bellaria Hospital, Bologna, Italy and (2) Neurosurgery Department, IRCCS Institute of Neurological Sciences, Bellaria Hospital, Bologna, Italy in the original publication of this paper.

Concepts: Bologna, Italy, University of Bologna, Hospital, Anterior communicating artery, Aneurysm, Surgery, Neurology


This study aimed to investigate whether moderately elevated intracranial pressure is associated with greater cross-filling of the anterior communicating artery on diagnostic cerebral angiography. A retrospective study of 12 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage was performed. Data on sequential cerebral angiograms and clinical data were used to indirectly estimate intracranial pressure (ICP). Cross-filling of the anterior communicating artery (ACom) was recorded according to our scoring system. Our study included 12 patients with mean age 43 ± 11 yrs. Six patients demonstrated greater ICP associated with greater cross-filling of the ACom on initial angiogram. One patient had greater ICP with greater cross-filling on follow-up angiogram secondary to infarction and midline shift. Two patients had lower ICP yet greater cross-filling on follow-up angiogram due to higher injection rate and volume. One patient with no change in ICP demonstrated the same degree of cross-filling. A markedly elevated ICP is traditionally associated with no cross-filling across the ACom. We propose a counter-intuitive model in which moderately elevated ICP produces greater cross-filling of the ACom. This diagnostic angiographic finding should make the angiographer consider that the patient has moderately elevated ICP, and facilitate more timely clinical management.

Concepts: Patience, Cerebral angiography, Traumatic brain injury, Patient, Atheroma, Atherosclerosis, Intracranial pressure, Angiography


We describe the case of a 44-year old man with a ruptured wide-necked non-origin aneurysm of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery successfully treated with placement of a low porosity stent. To our knowledge, there are no cases in the literature of a non-origin posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm treated with a flow-diverter stent.

Concepts: Case, Anterior inferior cerebellar artery, Posterior inferior cerebellar artery


Characterization of hematomas is essential in scan reading, manual delineation, and designing automatic segmentation algorithms. Our purpose is to characterize the distribution of intraventricular (IVH) and intracerebral hematomas (ICH) in NCCT scans, study their relationship to gray matter (GM), and to introduce a new tool for quantitative hematoma delineation. We used 289 serial retrospective scans of 51 patients. Hematomas were manually delineated in a two-stage process. Hematoma contours generated in the first stage were quantified and enhanced in the second stage. Delineation was based on new quantitative rules and hematoma profiling, and assisted by a dedicated tool superimposing quantitative information on scans with 3D hematoma display. The tool provides: density maps (40-85HU), contrast maps (8/15HU), mean horizontal/vertical contrasts for hematoma contours, and hematoma contours below a specified mean contrast (8HU). White matter (WM) and GM were segmented automatically. IVH/ICH on serial NCCT is characterized by 59.0HU mean, 60.0HU median, 11.6HU standard deviation, 23.9HU mean contrast, -0.99HU/day slope, and -0.24 skewness (changing over time from negative to positive). Its 0.1(st)-99.9(th) percentile range corresponds to 25-88HU range. WM and GM are highly correlated (R (2)=0.88; p<10(-10)) whereas the GM-GS correlation is weak (R (2)=0.14; p<10(-10)). The intersection point of mean GM-hematoma density distributions is at 55.6±5.8HU with the corresponding GM/hematoma percentiles of 88(th)/40(th). Objective characterization of IVH/ICH and stating the rules quantitatively will aid raters to delineate hematomas more robustly and facilitate designing algorithms for automatic hematoma segmentation. Our two-stage process is general and potentially applicable to delineate other pathologies on various modalities more robustly and quantitatively.

Concepts: Quantitative research, Multistage rocket, Percentile, Skewness, Mean, Standard deviation, Median


Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is an extremely rare vascular anomaly. Aplasia and displacement of the horizontal portion of the petrous carotid artery have been described in a patient with mandibulofacial dysostosis. To the best of our knowledge, the association between Goldenhar syndrome and ipsilateral ICA agenesis has emerged only in one case documented in the medical literature to date. We describe here a case that illustrates the association of Goldenhar syndrome with contralateral agenesis of the ICA incidentally detected on brain magnetic resonance imaging and subsequently confirmed on magnetic resonance angiography and high resolution computed tomography.

Concepts: X-ray, Brain, Internal carotid artery, Medicine, Radiology, Magnetic resonance imaging, Common carotid artery, Medical imaging


Extraneural metastases of ependymoma are very rare, and have been reported in the lungs, lymph nodes, pleura, mediastinum, liver, diaphragmatic muscle, and bone. We describe the radiological findings of pathologically proven lung metastases from an anaplastic ependymoma. The tumor which arose in the posterior fossa was first diagnosed in 2007 when first surgical resection was performed outside our institute. Multiple operations were performed after that due to tumor relapse. Multiple lung nodules were discovered incidentally during a VP shunt survey. Biopsy from the lung nodules displayed identical histomorphology to the primary brain tumor.

Concepts: Pneumothorax, Metastasis, Lung cancer, Lymph node, Brain tumor, Oncology, Heart, Cancer


Tumefactive demyelination refers to large focal demyelinating lesions in the brain, which can be mistaken for malignancy. In some patients, these lesions are monophasic with a self-limited course; however, other patients demonstrate recurrent disease with new tumefactive or non-tumefactive lesions, and a subsequent diagnosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis is not uncommon. Owing to the limited data available in the literature, many questions about the patterns and prognostic significance of recurrent tumefactive lesions remain unanswered. The current case report involves a patient who recovered from tumefactive demyelination and presented two years later with a new recurrent tumefactive lesion in the contralateral brain.

Concepts: Physician, Nervous system, Cerebrospinal fluid, Demyelinating disease, Myelin, Neuron, Multiple sclerosis, Medical terms


A large number of patients do not have cauda equina syndrome (CES) on MRI to account for their clinical findings; consequently, the majority of urgent scans requested are normal. We aimed to determine whether any clinical manifestation of CES, as stated in Royal College of Radiology guidelines, could predict the presence of established CES on MRI. We also aimed to support a larger study to develop a more universal assessment tool for acute lower back pain.A retrospective analysis of consecutive patients who warranted urgent MRI was conducted. Seventy-nine patients were eligible for study. The Kendall’s tau test was used for statistical analysis of all data. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. MRI was performed in 62 patients out of 79.A total of 32.9% of patients had scans within 24 hours of admission. Nine of these patients were referred to neurosurgery for urgent neurosurgical review. Of these, 6.3% of patients had an established CES on MRI scan. One patient who had an out-patient MRI spine (15 days from hospital presentation) was found to have an established CES, was urgently referred to spinal surgery and underwent primary fenestration excision of the lumbar vertebra. No clinical features that were able to predict the presence of an established CES on MRI were elucidated. Findings included decreased anal tone 7.6% (p = 0.282), faecal incontinence 3.8% (p = 0.648), urinary retention 7.6% (p = 0.510), bladder incontinence 8.9% (p = 0.474), constipation 2.5% (p = 0.011) and saddle anaesthesia 8.9% (p = 0.368). Patients who had an abnormal MRI spine for back pain prior to this presentation showed a correlation with a newly diagnosed CES on MRI (p = 0.016) with a correlation coefficient of 0.272.

Concepts: Cauda equina syndrome, Kendall tau rank correlation coefficient, Vertebral column, Urinary incontinence, Urinary bladder, Surgery, Cauda equina, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient


Low-profile self-expandable stents have increased the number of intracranial aneurysms treated by endovascular means. The new low-profile visible intraluminal support device LVIS EVO (Microvention), the successor of LVIS Jr, is a self-expandable and retrievable microstent system, designed for implantation into intracranial arteries with a diameter up to 2.0 mm. In this retrospective study we aimed to elucidate the technical feasibility and clinical safety of the novel LVIS EVO stent for stent-assisted coil embolisation of intracranial aneurysms.