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Journal: The journal of trauma and acute care surgery


A federal assault weapons ban has been proposed as a way to reduce mass shootings in the U.S. (U.S). The Federal Assault Weapons Ban (A.W.B.) of 1994 made the manufacture and civilian use of a defined set of automatic and semi-automatic weapons and large capacity magazines illegal. The ban expired in 2004. The period from 1994 to 2004 serves as a single-arm pre-post observational study to assess the effectiveness of this policy intervention.


Critical evaluation of all aspects of combat casualty care, including mortality, with a special focus on the incidence and causes of potentially preventable deaths among US combat fatalities, is central to identifying gaps in knowledge, training, equipment, and execution of battlefield trauma care. The impetus to produce this analysis was to develop a comprehensive perspective of battlefield death, concentrating on deaths that occurred in the pre-medical treatment facility (pre-MTF) environment.

Concepts: Critical thinking, Death, Life, Medical statistics, Demography, Future, Critical path method


BACKGROUND: The scope of prehospital (PH) interventions has expanded recently-not always with clear benefit. PH crystalloid resuscitation has been challenged, particularly in penetrating trauma. Optimal PH crystalloid resuscitation strategies remain unclear in blunt trauma as does the influence of PH hypotension. The objective was to characterize outcomes for PH crystalloid volume in patients with and without PH hypotension. METHODS: Data were obtained from a multicenter prospective study of blunt injured adults transported from the scene with ISS > 15. Subjects were divided into HIGH (>500 mL) and LOW (≤500 mL) PH crystalloid groups. Propensity-adjusted regression determined the association of PH crystalloid group with mortality and acute coagulopathy (admission International Normalized Ratio, >1.5) in subjects with and without PH hypotension (systolic blood pressure [SBP], <90 mm Hg) after controlling for confounders. RESULTS: Of 1,216 subjects, 822 (68%) received HIGH PH crystalloid and 616 (51%) had PH hypotension. Initial base deficit and ISS were similar between HIGH and LOW crystalloid groups in subjects with and without PH hypotension. In subjects without PH hypotension, HIGH crystalloid was associated with an increase in the risk of mortality (hazard ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.3-4.9; p < 0.01) and acute coagulopathy (odds ratio [OR], 2.2; 95% CI, 1.01-4.9; p = 0.04) but not in subjects with PH hypotension. HIGH crystalloid was associated with correction of PH hypotension on emergency department (ED) arrival (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.06-3.88; p = 0.03). The mean corrected SBP in the ED was 104 mm Hg. Each 1 mm Hg increase in ED SBP was associated with a 2% increase in survival in subjects with PH hypotension (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03; p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In severely injured blunt trauma patients, PH crystalloid more than 500 mL was associated with worse outcome in patients without PH hypotension but not with PH hypotension. HIGH crystalloid was associated with corrected PH hypotension. This suggests that PH resuscitation should be goal directed based on the presence or absence of PH hypotension. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level III.

Concepts: Blood, Hypertension, Blood pressure, PH, Trigraph, Hypotension, Penetrating trauma, Blunt trauma


Small 14F pigtail catheters (PCs) have been shown to drain air quite well in patients with traumatic pneumothorax (PTX). But their effectiveness in draining blood in patients with traumatic hemothorax (HTX) or hemopneumothorax (HPTX) is unknown. We hypothesized that 14F PCs can drain blood as well as large-bore 32F to 40F chest tubes. We herein report our early case series experience with PCs in the management of traumatic HTX and HPTX.

Concepts: Hospital, Pulmonary contusion, Pneumothorax, Physical trauma, Chest tube, Hemothorax, Chest trauma, Hemopneumothorax


Early administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) has been associated with a reduction in mortality and blood product requirements in severely injured adults. It has also shown significantly reduced blood loss and transfusion requirements in major elective pediatric surgery, but no published data have examined the use of TXA in pediatric trauma.

Concepts: Carbon dioxide, Hospital, Hydrogen, Surgery, Physician, Physical trauma, Tranexamic acid, Blood transfusion


Intracavitary noncompressible hemorrhage remains a significant cause of preventable death on the battlefield. Two dynamically mixed and percutaneously injected liquids were engineered to create an in situ self-expanding polymer foam to facilitate hemostasis in massive bleeding. We hypothesized that intraperitoneal injection of the polymer could achieve conformal contact with sites of injury and improve survival in swine with lethal hepatoportal injury.

Concepts: Blood, Hemostasis, Bleeding, Silicone, Exsanguination


For nearly a decade, our center performed thromboelastograms (TEGs) to analyze coagulation profiles, allowing rapid data-driven blood component therapy. After consensus recommendations for massive transfusion protocols (MTPs), we implemented an MTP in October 2009 with 1:1:1 ratio of blood (red blood cells [RBC]), plasma (fresh-frozen plasma [FFP]), and platelets. We hypothesized that TEG-directed resuscitation is equivalent to MTP resuscitation.

Concepts: Blood, Red blood cell, Bone marrow, Coagulation, Platelet, Hematology, Blood transfusion, Blood cell


The role of mitochondrial dysfunction has not been thoroughly clarified in the pathogenesis of critically ill patients. The objective of this study was to investigate mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and apoptosis in circulating platelets in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS).

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Mitochondrion, Organelle, Cell biology, Systemic inflammatory response syndrome, Thrombocytopenia, Sepsis


Immediate use of thawed fresh frozen plasma (FFP) when resuscitating hemorrhagic shock patients has become more common. According to the AABB (formerly known as American Association of Blood Banks), FFP is the preferred product that can be used up to 5 days after thawing. However, limited data exist on the clinical use and hemostatic profiles of Food and Drug Administration-approved liquid plasma (LQP), which can be stored at 1°C to 6°C for up to 26 days. We characterized changes in LQP hemostatic potential during 26 days of cold storage.

Concepts: Blood, Coagulation, Liquid, Fresh frozen plasma, Cryoprecipitate, Blood plasma, Blood bank, 2007 singles


Best practices promulgated by the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma suggest that delay in surgery for adhesive small bowel obstruction (ASBO) should not exceed 5 days. This study aimed to probe the relationship between operative delay and adverse outcomes, defined as occurrence of a complication, requirement for bowel resection, prolonged postoperative stay, or death in ASBO using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample.

Concepts: Crohn's disease, Constipation, Hernia, Bowel obstruction, General surgery, Best practice, Nationwide Building Society