SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy

156

It is still debated if pre-existing minority drug-resistant HIV-1 variants (MVs) affect the virological outcomes of first-line NNRTI-containing ART.

Concepts: Pyrosequencing, 454 Life Sciences, Case-control study

148

Mycobacterium tuberculosis can exist in different states in vitro, which can be denoted as fast multiplying, slow multiplying and non-multiplying. Characterizing the natural growth of M. tuberculosis could provide a framework for accurate characterization of drug effects on the different bacterial states.

Concepts: Tuberculosis, Pathogen, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Robert Koch, Tubercle

94

A novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2, has swept across 31 provinces in China and over 40 countries worldwide. The transition from first symptoms to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is highly likely to be due to uncontrolled cytokine release. There is an urgent need to identify safe and effective drugs for treatment. Chloroquine (CQ) exhibits a promising inhibitory effect. However, the clinical use of CQ can cause severe side effects. We propose that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), which exhibits an antiviral effect highly similar to that of CQ, could serve as a better therapeutic approach. HCQ is likely to attenuate the severe progression of COVID-19, inhibiting the cytokine storm by suppressing T cell activation. It has a safer clinical profile and is suitable for those who are pregnant. It is cheaper and more readily available in China. We herein strongly urge that clinical trials are performed to assess the preventive effects of HCQ in both disease infection and progression.

54

‘Superbugs’, bacteria that have become resistant to antibiotics, have been in numerous media headlines, raising awareness of antibiotic resistance and leading to multiple action plans from policymakers worldwide. However, many commonly used terms, such as ‘the war against superbugs’, risk misleading people to request ‘new’ or ‘stronger’ antibiotics from their doctors, veterinary surgeons or pharmacists, rather than addressing a fundamental issue: the misuse and overuse of antibiotics in humans and animals. Simple measures of antibiotic consumption are needed for mass communication. In this article, we describe the concept of the ‘antibiotic footprint’ as a tool to communicate to the public the magnitude of antibiotic use in humans, animals and industry, and how it could support the reduction of overuse and misuse of antibiotics worldwide. We propose that people need to make appropriate changes in behaviour that reduce their direct and indirect consumption of antibiotics.

47

On December 2013, the US FDA proposed a rule stating that manufacturers must provide data to demonstrate that antibacterial soap is more effective than plain soap or water. The objective of the present study was to examine the in vitro and in vivo bactericidal effect of triclosan (the most widely used antiseptic agent in soap) in soap.

Concepts: Antiseptic

32

The introduction of metagenomic sequencing to diagnostic microbiology has been hampered by slowness, cost and complexity. We explored whether MinION nanopore sequencing could accelerate diagnosis and resistance profiling, using complicated urinary tract infections as an exemplar.

Concepts: Kidney, Bacteria, Microbiology, Urinary tract infection, Urine, Escherichia coli, Pathogen, Microorganism

32

The UK 5 year antimicrobial resistance strategy recognizes the role of point-of-care diagnostics to identify where antimicrobials are required, as well as to assess the appropriateness of the diagnosis and treatment. A sore throat test-and-treat service was introduced in 35 community pharmacies across two localities in England during 2014-15.

Concepts: Microbiology, United Kingdom, England

30

All-cause antibiotic prescribing affects bowel flora antimicrobial susceptibility, and may increase risk of urinary autoinoculation with antibiotic-resistant microbes. However, little is known about relative prevalence of, or risk factors for, antimicrobial resistance among potentially pathogenic microbes thought to be contaminating and infecting urine.

Concepts: Bacteria, Microbiology, Staphylococcus aureus, Antibiotic resistance, Escherichia coli, Microorganism, Penicillin, Clostridium difficile

30

The diazabicyclooctane β-lactamase inhibitor OP0595 (RG6080) also acts as an antibiotic, targeting PBP2 in Enterobacteriaceae, but this activity is vulnerable to mutational resistance. We used WGS to investigate the basis of this resistance.

Concepts: Bacteria, Virus, Fungus, Antibiotic resistance, Antibiotic, Microorganism, Penicillin

28

The purpose of this study was to conduct a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of high (320/1600 mg) and standard (160/800 mg) doses of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and linezolid in outpatients with mild diabetic foot infections (DFIs).