Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: The American journal of medicine


To evaluate the impact of cancer upon a patient’s depletion of net worth and incursion of debt in the U.S.


The mechanism of action of empagliflozin in reducing the risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes vs placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a high risk of cardiovascular disease in the Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients-Removing Excess Glucose (EMPA-REG OUTCOME) trial is currently unknown. An antiatherosclerotic effect is considered unlikely given the speed of the observed decrease in cardiovascular mortality. Hemodynamic effects, such as reductions in blood pressure and intravascular volume, and involving osmotic diuresis, may provide a more plausible explanation. Metabolic effects, such as cardiac fuel energetics, and hormonal effects, such as increased glucagon release, may also contribute to the results observed during EMPA-REG OUTCOME. This review discusses the main hypotheses suggested to date.

Concepts: Blood, Myocardial infarction, Hypertension, Insulin, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Glucose, Hormone


Violent death is a serious problem in the US. Previous research showing US rates of violent death compared with other high-income countries used data that are more than a decade old.

Concepts: United States, U.S. state, Olympic Games, Canada, Mexico, Humid subtropical climate, Winter Olympic Games, Passenger vehicles in the United States


To derive and validate a single metric of activity tracking that associates with lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality.

Concepts: Cardiovascular disease, Actuarial science


We aimed to evaluate the role of caffeinated beverage intake as a potential trigger of migraine headaches on that day or on the following day.


Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual loss among the elderly. A key cell-type involved in AMD, the retinal pigment epithelium expresses a g-protein coupled receptor that, in response to its ligand, L-DOPA, upregulates pigment epithelia derived factor, while downregulating vascular endothelial growth factor. In this study we investigated the potential relationship between L-DOPA and AMD.

Concepts: Signal transduction, Epithelium, Retina, Melanin, Macular degeneration, Bruch's membrane, Drusen, Retinal pigment epithelium


To determine the contents of chicken nuggets from 2 national food chains.

Concepts: Chicken, Fast food, C-Bo


BACKGROUND: There are limited data regarding the relationship between cannabinoids and metabolic processes. Epidemiologic studies have found lower prevalence rates of obesity and diabetes mellitus in marijuana users compared with people who have never used marijuana, suggesting a relationship between cannabinoids and peripheral metabolic processes. To date, no study has investigated the relationship between marijuana use and fasting insulin, glucose, and insulin resistance. METHODS: We included 4657 adult men and women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005 to 2010. Marijuana use was assessed by self-report in a private room. Fasting insulin and glucose were measured via blood samples after a 9-hour fast, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated to evaluate insulin resistance. Associations were estimated using multiple linear regression, accounting for survey design and adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of the participants in our study sample, 579 were current marijuana users and 1975 were past users. In multivariable adjusted models, current marijuana use was associated with 16% lower fasting insulin levels (95% confidence interval [CI], -26, -6) and 17% lower HOMA-IR (95% CI, -27, -6). We found significant associations between marijuana use and smaller waist circumferences. Among current users, we found no significant dose-response. CONCLUSIONS: We found that marijuana use was associated with lower levels of fasting insulin and HOMA-IR, and smaller waist circumference.

Concepts: Metabolism, Nutrition, Insulin, Diabetes mellitus, Glucose, Obesity, Insulin resistance, Metabolic syndrome


A variety of claims about possible associations between gun ownership rates, mental illness burden, and the risk of firearm-related deaths have been put forward. However, systematic data on this issue among various countries remain scant. Our objective was to assess whether the popular notion “guns make a nation safer” has any merits.

Concepts: Firearm


The burden of medications near the end of life has recently come under scrutiny, because several studies suggested that people with life-limiting illness receive potentially futile treatments.

Concepts: Cohort study, Longitudinal study, Cohort, Epidemiology, Life, Cultural studies