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Journal: Skeletal radiology


To investigate the value of post-traumatic pronator quadratus (PQ) fat pad sign as a reliable predictor of subtle wrist fractures.

Concepts: Sensitivity and specificity


A unique anatomical variation of the suprascapular notch was discovered in one scapula from 610 analyzed by three-dimensional CT reconstruction. Two bony bridges were found, converting it into a double suprascapular foramen, in the left upper extremity of an 56-year-old Caucasian female. This variation might be a risk factor for suprascapular nerve entrapment. Suprascapular nerve running through inferior suprascapular foramen was discovered. Suprascapular vessels passed through superior suprascapular foramen (artery lay medially and vein laterally). A new hypothesis of double suprascapular foramen formation (mechanism of creation) is presented based on recent anatomical findings (e.g., the discovery in 2002 of the anterior coracoscapular ligament). Knowledge of the anatomical variations described in this study should be helpful in arthroscopic and open procedures at the suprascapular region and also confirms the safety of operative decompression for the suprascapular nerve.

Concepts: Blood vessel, Observation, Anatomy, Supraspinatus muscle, Suprascapular nerve, Suprascapular notch, The Double, Double variation


The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has revealed a surprising number of extra-pulmonary manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. While myalgia is a common clinical feature of COVID-19, other musculoskeletal manifestations of COVID-19 were infrequently described early during the pandemic. There have been emerging reports, however, of an array of neuromuscular and rheumatologic complications related to COVID-19 infection and disease course including myositis, neuropathy, arthropathy, and soft tissue abnormalities. Multimodality imaging supports diagnosis and evaluation of musculoskeletal disorders in COVID-19 patients. This article aims to provide a first comprehensive summary of musculoskeletal manifestations of COVID-19 with review of imaging.


To identify abnormalities in asymptomatic sedentary individuals using 3.0 Tesla high-resolution MRI.


The ultrasound examination of hamstrings inspires respect due to the connective complexity of their structures, particularly for sonographers who are not used to this kind of study. Therefore, it is important to know the specific ultrasound reference points that facilitate the location of the hamstring structures, dividing them into four areas of interest: (a) tendinous origin of the hamstring, (b) the proximal half, © distal and medial half, and (d) distal and lateral half. The origin of the hamstrings is found at the level of the ischial tuberosity. Here, the connective structures under study are the common tendon and the semimembranosus tendon, together with the muscle fibers more proximal to the semitendinosus, which can also be assessed through ultrasound locating the ischial tuberosity. The proximal half of the thigh consists of a characteristic structure made up by the common tendon, the sciatic nerve and the semimembranosus tendon, enabling to define the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus, respectively. To identify the distal and medial section, the volumetric relationship between the ST and SM muscle masses is used, where it is also possible to identify the three muscles in the knee that make up the pes anserine. To identify the distal and lateral sections, the sciatic nerve pathway is followed until identifying both heads of the biceps femoris. These four areas of interest, with their specific landmarks, show a tuning fork that enables the comprehensive study of hamstrings through ultrasound.


Members of the International Skeletal Society compiled a glossary of terms for musculoskeletal radiology. The authors also represent national radiology or pathology societies in Asia, Australia, Europe, and the USA. We provide brief descriptions of musculoskeletal structures, disease processes, and syndromes and address their imaging features. Given the abundance of musculoskeletal disorders and derangements, we chose to omit most terms relating to neoplasm, spine, intervention, and pediatrics. Consensus agreement was obtained from 19 musculoskeletal radiology societies worldwide.


The deltoid is a fascinating muscle with a significant role in shoulder function. It is comprised of three distinct portions (anterior or clavicular, middle or acromial, and posterior or spinal) and acts mainly as an abductor of the shoulder and stabilizer of the humeral head. Deltoid tears are not infrequently associated with large or massive rotator cuff tears and may further jeopardize shoulder function. A variety of other pathologies may affect the deltoid muscle including enthesitis, calcific tendinitis, myositis, infection, tumors, and chronic avulsion injury. Contracture of the deltoid following repeated intramuscular injections could present with progressive abduction deformity and winging of the scapula. The deltoid muscle and its innervating axillary nerve may be injured during shoulder surgery, which may have disastrous functional consequences. Axillary neuropathies leading to deltoid muscle dysfunction include traumatic injuries, quadrilateral space and Parsonage-Turner syndromes, and cause denervation of the deltoid muscle. Finally, abnormalities of the deltoid may originate from nearby pathologies of subdeltoid bursa, acromion, and distal clavicle.

Concepts: Humerus, Shoulder, Rotator cuff, Deltoid muscle, Axillary nerve, Clavicle, Scapula, Acromion


To compare the rotator interval and capsular dimension as measured on MR arthrography between patients with clinically diagnosed multidirectional instability (MDI) and control subjects with no instability.

Concepts: Control theory, Units of measurement


To document the first report of intra-articular, non-weight-bearing, impaction fractures of the lateral femoral condyle.

Concepts: Bone, Documents


Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited disorder characterized by increased bone fragility with recurrent fractures that leads to skeletal deformities in severe cases. Consequently, in most OI patients, the hip is the only reliable measuring site for estimating future fracture risk. The aim of the study was to assess the applicability of hip structure analysis (HSA) by DXA in adult patients with osteogenesis imperfecta.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Bone, Fracture, Skeletal system, Psychometrics, Uncertainty, Intramembranous ossification, Osteogenesis imperfecta