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Journal: RoFo : Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Rontgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin


Purpose: To flesh out the ESUR guidelines for the standardized interpretation of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI) for the detection of prostate cancer and to present a graphic reporting scheme for improved communication of findings to urologists. Materials and Methods: The ESUR has recently published a structured reporting system for mMRI of the prostate (PI-RADS). This system involves the use of 5-point Likert scales for grading the findings obtained with different MRI techniques. The mMRI includes T2-weighted MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, and MR spectroscopy. In a first step, the fundamentals of technical implementation were determined by consensus, taking into account in particular the German-speaking community. Then, representative images were selected by consensus on the basis of examinations of the three institutions. In addition, scoring intervals for an aggregated PI-RADS score were determined in consensus. Results: The multiparametric methods were discussed critically with regard to implementation and the current status. Criteria used for grading mMRI findings with the PI-RADS classification were concretized by succinct examples. Using the consensus table for aggregated scoring in a clinical setting, a diagnosis of suspected prostate cancer should be made if the PI-RADS score is 4 or higher (≥ 10 points if 3 techniques are used or ≥ 13 points if 4 techniques are used). Finally, a graphic scheme was developed for communicating mMRI prostate findings. Conclusion: Structured reporting according to the ESUR guidelines contributes to quality assurance by standardizing prostate mMRI, and it facilities the communication of findings to urologists.

Concepts: Cancer, Medical imaging, Prostate cancer, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Magnetic resonance imaging, Radiology, Diffusion MRI, In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy


Purpose: The decline in advanced breast cancer stages is presumably the most relevant surrogate parameter in mammography screening. It represents the last step in the causal cascade that is expected to affect breast cancer-related mortality. To assess the effectiveness of population-based screening, we analyzed the 2-year incidence rates of advanced breast cancers between women participating in the initial and in the first subsequent round. Materials and Methods: The study included data from 19 563 initial and 18 034 subsequent examinations of one digital screening unit (2008 - 2010). Data on tumor stages, detected by screening or within the following interval of two years (2-year incidence), were provided by the epidemiological cancer registry. Rates of all and combined UICC stages 2, 3 and 4 (advanced stages) were reported for a two-year period. Proportions were tested for significance by using chi-square tests (p < 0.001). Results: The 2-year incidence rate of all stages was significantly lower in participants in subsequent screening than in initial screening (0.85 vs. 1.29 per 100 women (%); p < 0.0001). A significantly lower 2-year incidence of advanced stages was observed for subsequent screening compared to initial screening (0.26 % vs. 0.48 %; p = 0.0007). Among women aged 50 to 59 years, the incidence of advanced stages was less clearly different (0.21 % vs. 0.35 %; p = 0.07) than in women aged 60 to 69 years (0.31 % vs. 0.70 %; p = 0.0008). Conclusion: During the change from prevalent to incident phase mammography screening, a program impact is seen by a lower 2-year incidence of advanced breast cancers within subsequent compared to initial participants, predominately in women aged 60 to 69 years. Key Points: • The incidence of advanced tumor stages represents the most relevant surrogate parameter for screening effectiveness.• For the first time the 2-year incidence of advanced breast cancer stages after subsequent mammography screening was analyzed.• We observed a significant effect of screening on the 2-year incidence of advanced stages, predominately in the age group 60 to 69 years. Citation Format: • Weigel S, Heindel W, Heidrich J et al. Reduction of Advanced Breast Cancer Stages at Subsequent Participation in Mammography Screening. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2015; DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-107835.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Cancer staging, Medical statistics, Incidence, Cancer support group


Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in middle-aged, male marathon runners using coronary dual source CT angiography (DSCTA). Materials and Methods: 50 male marathon runners older than 45 years (mean age: 52.7, standard deviation: 5.9 years, range: 45 to 67 years) received DSCTA including calcium scoring (CS) in addition to standard pre-participation screening. Based on standard risk factors, the risk for coronary events was calculated using the PROCAM score. Coronary status was defined using the following system: 1. absence of CAD (CS zero, no coronary plaques) 2. mild coronary atherosclerosis (CS > 0, coronary plaques with luminal narrowing < 50 %), 3. moderate coronary atherosclerosis (CS > 0, luminal narrowing > 50 %), 4. significant CAD (CS > 0, luminal narrowing > 75 %). Results: The mean PROCAM score was 1.85 % (standard deviation = 1.56, range 0.39 to 8.47 %). 26/50 marathon runners had no atherosclerosis. 1 of the remaining 24 participants had significant CAD, 3 had moderate coronary atherosclerosis and 20 had mild coronary atherosclerosis. Treadmill exercise testing was unremarkable in terms of myocardial ischemia in all participants. Age, systolic blood pressure, personal minimum time, family history of cardiovascular disease and PROCAM score were factors associated with an increased risk for coronary atherosclerosis. Conclusion: Coronary atherosclerosis can be detected in almost 50 % of male marathon runners aged older than 45 years. In 24 % of the participants plaques were located in the proximal coronary system. However, only a minority of these persons have obstructive CAD. As expected, treadmill exercise testing failed to detect these persons that possibly have a higher risk for coronary events. Key points: • Coronary atherosclerosis can be detected in ~50 % of male marathon runners > 45 years• Only a minority of these persons have obstructive CAD• Treadmill exercise testing failed to detect these persons• Cardiac CT might help to identify athletes with elevated risk for coronary events, especially in persons with a family history of coronary artery disease Citation Format: • Tsiflikas I, Thomas C, Fallmann C et al. Prevalence of Subclinical Coronary Artery Disease in Middle-Aged, Male Marathon Runners Detected by Cardiac CT. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2015; DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1399221.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Angina pectoris, Heart, Atheroma, Blood pressure, Artery, Coronary circulation


 Radiological imaging offers promising prospects for the early detection of diseases. In Germany, the legal framework for such examinations was created by the Radiation Protection Law, which entered into force on December 31, 2018. Under this law, each specific type of radiodiagnostic screening of non-communicable diseases needs an approval on a generic level (permission) by a federal statutory ordinance, defining the specific requirements and conditions. It is the aim of the present paper, (i) to present in detail the new legal situation and (ii) to assess actual service offers for the screening of asymptomatic persons using CT examinations as an example.


 Assessment of age group-dependent detection rates of invasive breast cancers among participants in mammography screening including the interval, classified into immunohistochemical subtypes indicating the intrinsic tumor aggressiveness.


 Purpose of this paper to present results of a group of 21 consecutive patients who underwent uterine artery embolization (UAE) immediately before myomectomy. Surgical myomectomy can lead to a substantial blood loss in case of large or multiple tumors due to the hypervascularization of the tumors. This may lead to multiple blood transfusion or hysterectomy. In cases were the preservation of the uterus is demanded, pre-operative embolization could reduce the risk of substantial bleeding.

Concepts: Blood, Uterus, Surgery, Hysterectomy, Blood transfusion, Uterine fibroids, Uterine artery embolization, Uterine artery


 To compare B-flow sonography (BFS) with color Doppler sonography (CDS) for imaging of kidney transplant vascularization in children.


 Avulsion injuries of the pelvis and hip region are typical injuries in adolescent athletes but can be found in adults as well. Typical sites for avulsion injuries include the origin/insertion of tendons and ligaments. Among adolescents, the not yet ossified apophysis is also frequently involved. The pelvis and hip are especially prone to such injuries due to their complex musculotendinous anatomy. Clinical history and physical examination in combination with the recognition of typical imaging findings are essential for correct diagnosis of these mostly acute, but sometimes also chronic injuries.



 To evaluate the feasibility and image quality of a motion correction algorithm for supra-selective C-arm computed tomography (CACT) of the pulmonary arteries in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) undergoing balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA).