SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Psychotherapy and psychosomatics

157

We examined the efficacy of group-based cognitive intervention (GCI) and home-based cognitive intervention (HCI) in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and intervention effects on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Effectiveness, Efficacy, Neurotrophin, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Nerve growth factor, Neurotrophins, Mild cognitive impairment

154

Patients with somatic conditions, such as psoriasis, frequently suffer from high burden of their disease in daily life and might benefit from internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) tailored to their adjustment problems. The aim of this multicenter randomized controlled trial was to examine the effects of therapist-guided, individually tailored ICBT in a clinical sample of patients with psoriasis.

Concepts: Psychology, Medicine, Epidemiology, Randomized controlled trial, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Behaviorism

149

Placebo and nocebo effects occur in clinical or laboratory medical contexts after administration of an inert treatment or as part of active treatments and are due to psychobiological mechanisms such as expectancies of the patient. Placebo and nocebo studies have evolved from predominantly methodological research into a far-reaching interdisciplinary field that is unravelling the neurobiological, behavioural and clinical underpinnings of these phenomena in a broad variety of medical conditions. As a consequence, there is an increasing demand from health professionals to develop expert recommendations about evidence-based and ethical use of placebo and nocebo effects for clinical practice.

79

The most efficacious treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD) are the SSRIs and cognitive therapy (CT). Combined treatment is advocated for SAD but has not been evaluated in randomized trials using CT and SSRI. Our aim was to evaluate whether one treatment is more effective than the other and whether combined treatment is more effective than the single treatments.

Concepts: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Anxiety disorder, Panic disorder, Avoidant personality disorder, Personality disorder, Social anxiety disorder, Paroxetine

31

Background: The revision process for and recent publication of the DSM-5 initiated debates about the widening of diagnostic boundaries. The pharmaceutical industry had a major financial stake in the outcome of these debates. This study examines the three-part relationship among DSM panel members, principal investigators (PIs) of clinical trials for new DSM-5 diagnoses, and drug companies. Methods: Financial conflicts of interest (FCOI) of DSM panel members responsible for some new diagnoses in the DSM-5 and PIs of clinical trials for related drug treatments were identified. Trials were found by searching ClinicalTrials.gov. Patent and revenue information about these drugs was found using the US Food and Drug Administration’s Orange Book and manufacturer Annual Reports. Results: Thirteen trials met inclusion criteria (testing drugs for some new DSM disorders). Sixty-one percent of the DSM Task Force members and 27% of Work Group members reported FCOI to the trial drug manufacturers. In 5 of the 13 trials (38%), PIs reported ties other than research funding to the drug manufacturer. In 3 of the trials (23%), a PI had financial ties to the drug manufacturer and was also a DSM panel member who had decision-making authority over the revision process. Conclusions: These findings suggest that increased transparency (e.g., registration on ClinicalTrials.gov) and mandatory disclosure policies (e.g., the American Psychiatric Association’s disclosure policy for DSM-5 panel members) alone may not be robust enough strategies to prevent the appearance of bias in both the DSM revision process as well as clinical decisions about appropriate interventions for DSM disorders. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Clinical trial, ClinicalTrials.gov, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric Association

29

Background: Psychodynamic psychotherapy has been used to treat depression for more than a century. However, not all patients respond equally well, and there are few reliable predictors of treatment outcome. Methods: We used resting (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG-PET) scans immediately before and after a structured, open trial of brief psychodynamic psychotherapy (n = 16) in conjunction with therapy process ratings and clinical outcome measures to identify neural correlates of treatment response. Results: Pretreatment glucose metabolism within the right posterior insula correlated with depression severity. Reductions in depression scores correlated with a pre- to posttreatment reduction in right insular metabolism, which in turn correlated with higher objective measures of patient insight obtained from videotaped therapy sessions. Pretreatment metabolism in the right precuneus was significantly higher in patients who completed treatment and correlated with psychological mindedness. Conclusions: Resting brain metabolism predicted both clinical course and relevant psychotherapeutic process during short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy for depression. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Concepts: Psychology, Positron emission tomography, Clinical psychology, Psychotherapy, Insular cortex, Psychoanalysis, Psychodynamic psychotherapy, Psychodynamics

28

The Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures proposed rigorous criteria to define empirically supported psychotherapies. According to these criteria, 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing efficacy are required for a treatment to be designated as ‘efficacious’ and 1 RCT for a designation as ‘possibly efficacious’. Applying these criteria modified by Chambless and Hollon, this article presents an update on the evidence for psychodynamic therapy (PDT) in specific mental disorders.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, Family therapy, Psychoanalysis, Psychodynamic psychotherapy, Psychodynamics, Depth psychology

28

Background: Motive-oriented therapeutic relationship (MOTR) was postulated to be a particularly helpful therapeutic ingredient in the early treatment phase of patients with personality disorders, in particular with borderline personality disorder (BPD). The present randomized controlled study using an add-on design is the first study to test this assumption in a 10-session general psychiatric treatment with patients presenting with BPD on symptom reduction and therapeutic alliance. Methods: A total of 85 patients were randomized. They were either allocated to a manual-based short variant of the general psychiatric management (GPM) treatment (in 10 sessions) or to the same treatment where MOTR was deliberately added to the treatment. Treatment attrition and integrity analyses yielded satisfactory results. Results: The results of the intent-to-treat analyses suggested a global efficacy of MOTR, in the sense of an additional reduction of general problems, i.e. symptoms, interpersonal and social problems (F1, 73 = 7.25, p < 0.05). However, they also showed that MOTR did not yield an additional reduction of specific borderline symptoms. It was also shown that a stronger therapeutic alliance, as assessed by the therapist, developed in MOTR treatments compared to GPM (Z55 = 0.99, p < 0.04). Conclusions: These results suggest that adding MOTR to psychiatric and psychotherapeutic treatments of BPD is promising. Moreover, the findings shed additional light on the perspective of shortening treatments for patients presenting with BPD. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Mental disorder, Borderline personality disorder, Psychotherapy, Personality disorder, Histrionic personality disorder

27

This article reviews research and interventions that have grown up around a model of psychological well-being generated more than two decades ago to address neglected aspects of positive functioning such as purposeful engagement in life, realization of personal talents and capacities, and enlightened self-knowledge. The conceptual origins of this formulation are revisited and scientific products emerging from 6 thematic areas are examined: (1) how well-being changes across adult development and later life; (2) what are the personality correlates of well-being; (3) how well-being is linked with experiences in family life; (4) how well-being relates to work and other community activities; (5) what are the connections between well-being and health, including biological risk factors, and (6) via clinical and intervention studies, how psychological well-being can be promoted for ever-greater segments of society. Together, these topics illustrate flourishing interest across diverse scientific disciplines in understanding adults as striving, meaning-making, proactive organisms who are actively negotiating the challenges of life. A take-home message is that increasing evidence supports the health protective features of psychological well-being in reducing risk for disease and promoting length of life. A recurrent and increasingly important theme is resilience - the capacity to maintain or regain well-being in the face of adversity. Implications for future research and practice are considered. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Concepts: Biology, Organism, Life, Personality psychology, Clinical psychology, Face, Adult, Adult development

26

Psychological problems are common in cancer patients. For the purpose of planning psycho-oncological interventions and services tailored to the specific needs of different cancer patient populations, it is necessary to know to what extent psychological problems meet the criteria of mental disorders. The purpose of this study was to estimate the 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of mental disorders in cancer patients.

Concepts: Psychology, Epidemiology, Disease, Oncology, Mental disorder, Prevalence