Journal: Psychiatry research
COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown has brought about a sense of fear and anxiety around the globe. This phenomenon has led to short term as well as long term psychosocial and mental health implications for children and adolescents. The quality and magnitude of impact on minors is determined by many vulnerability factors like developmental age, educational status, pre-existing mental health condition, being economically underprivileged or being quarantined due to infection or fear of infection.
Hair-pulling disorder (trichotillomania, HPD) is a disabling condition that is characterized by repetitive hair-pulling resulting in hair loss. Although there is evidence of structural grey matter abnormalities in HPD, there is a paucity of data on white matter integrity. The aim of this study was to explore white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in subjects with HPD and healthy controls. Sixteen adult female subjects with HPD and 13 healthy female controls underwent DTI. Hair-pulling symptom severity, anxiety and depressive symptoms were also assessed. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to analyze data on fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD). There were no differences in DTI measures between HPD subjects and healthy controls. However, there were significant associations of increased MD in white matter tracts of the fronto-striatal-thalamic pathway with longer HPD duration and increased HPD severity. Our findings suggest that white matter integrity in fronto-striatal-thalamic pathways in HPD is related to symptom duration and severity. The molecular basis of measures of white matter integrity in HPD deserves further exploration.
Insomnia is common in people experiencing psychosis. It has been identified as a contributory cause of paranoia, but any causal relationship with hallucinations has yet to be established. We tested the hypotheses that insomnia i) has a cross-sectional association with hallucinations ii) predicts new inceptions of hallucinations and iii) that these associations remain after controlling for depression, anxiety, and paranoia. Data from the second (2000, N=8580) and third (2007, N=7403) British Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys were used to assess cross-sectional associations between insomnia and hallucinations. The 2000 dataset included an 18 month follow up of a subsample (N=2406) used to test whether insomnia predicted new inceptions of hallucinations. Insomnia was associated with hallucinations in both cross-sectional datasets. Mild sleep problems were associated with 2-3 times greater odds of reporting hallucinations, whilst chronic insomnia was associated with four times greater odds. Insomnia was also associated with increased odds of hallucinations occurring de novo over the next 18 months. These associations remained significant, although with smaller odds ratios, after controlling for depression, anxiety and paranoia. This is the first longitudinal evidence that insomnia is associated with the development of hallucinatory experiences. Effective treatment of insomnia may lessen the occurrence of hallucinations.
The role that cognitive processing of a recent trauma has in the occurrence of hallucinations has not been examined longitudinally. This study investigated trauma-related cognitive predictors of hallucinations in the months following an interpersonal assault. Four weeks after treatment at an emergency department for interpersonal assault injuries, 106 participants were assessed for peri-traumatic cognitive processing, cognitive responses to trauma memories, negative beliefs about the self, Posttraumatic-stress disorder (PTSD), and hallucinatory experiences. Hallucinatory experiences were reassessed six months later. Cognitive processing during trauma (lack of self-referential processing, and dissociation), beliefs about permanent negative change, self-vulnerability, and self-blame and cognitive response styles (thought suppression, rumination, and numbing) were significant predictors of later hallucinations. The way in which trauma is processed may partly determine the occurrence of hallucinations.
China has been severely affected by Coronavirus Disease 2019(COVID-19) since December, 2019. We aimed to assess the mental health burden of Chinese public during the outbreak, and to explore the potential influence factors. Using a web-based cross-sectional survey, we collected data from 7,236 self-selected volunteers assessed with demographic information, COVID-19 related knowledge, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), depressive symptoms, and sleep quality. The overall prevalence of GAD, depressive symptoms, and sleep quality of the public were 35.1%, 20.1%, and 18.2%, respectively. Younger people reported a significantly higher prevalence of GAD and depressive symptoms than older people. Compared with other occupational group, healthcare workers were more likely to have poor sleep quality. Multivariate logistic regression showed that age (< 35 years) and time spent focusing on the COVID-19 (≥ 3 hours per day) were associated with GAD, and healthcare workers were at high risk for poor sleep quality. Our study identified a major mental health burden of the public during the COVID-19 outbreak. Younger people, people spending too much time thinking about the outbreak, and healthcare workers were at high risk of mental illness. Continuous surveillance of the psychological consequences for outbreaks should become routine as part of preparedness efforts worldwide.
The COronaVIrus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the critical need to focus on its impact on the mental health of Healthcare Workers (HCWs) involved in the response to this emergency. It has been consistently shown that a high proportion of HCWs is at greater risk for developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (PTSS). The present study systematic reviewed studies conducted in the context of the three major Coronavirus outbreaks of the last two decades to investigate risk and resilience factors for PTSD and PTSS in HCWs. Nineteen studies on the SARS 2003 outbreak, two on the MERS 2012 outbreak and three on the COVID-19 ongoing outbreak were included. Some variables were found to be of particular relevance as risk factors as well as resilience factors, including exposure level, working role, years of work experience, social and work support, job organization, quarantine, age, gender, marital status, and coping styles. It will be critical to account for these factors when planning effective intervention strategies, to enhance the resilience and reduce the risk of adverse mental health outcomes among HCWs facing the current COVID-19 pandemic.
Macroeconomic indicators, notably unemployment, are significant moderators of suicide. We projected the number of excess suicides in Canada as a consequence of the impact of COVID-19 on unemployment. Annual suicide mortality (2000-2018) and unemployment (2000-2019) data were derived from Statistics Canada. Time-trend regression models were used to evaluate and predict the number of excess suicides in 2020 and 2021 for two possible projection scenarios following the COVID-19 pandemic: 1) an increase in unemployment of 1.6% in 2020, 1.2% in 2021, or 2) an increase in unemployment of 10.7% in 2020, 8.9% in 2021. A percentage point increase in unemployment was associated with a 1.0% increase in suicide between 2000 and 2018. In the first scenario, the rise in unemployment rates resulted in a projected total of 418 excess suicides in 2020-2021 (suicide rate per 100,000: 11.6 in 2020). In the second scenario, the projected suicide rates per 100,000 increased to 14.0 in 2020 and 13.6 in 2021, resulting in 2114 excess suicides in 2020-2021. These results indicate that suicide prevention in the context of COVID-19-related unemployment is a critical priority. Furthermore, timely access to mental healthcare, financial provisions and social/labour support programs, as well as optimal treatment for mental disorders is urgently needed.
Physical activity has been proposed to be beneficial for prevention of depression, although the importance of exercise intensity, sex-specific mechanisms, and duration of the effects need to be clarified. Using an observational study design, following 395,369 individuals up to 21 years we studied whether participation in an ultralong-distance cross-country ski race was associated with lower risk of developing depression. Skiers (participants in the race) and matched non-skiers from the general population (non-participants in the race) were studied after participation (same year for non-participation) in the race using the Swedish population and patient registries. The risk of depression in skiers (n = 197,685, median age 36 years, 38% women) was significantly lower, to nearly half of that in non-skiers (adjusted hazard ratio, HR 0.53) over the follow-up period. Further, a higher fitness level (measured as the finishing time to complete the race, a proxy for higher exercise dose) was associated with lower incidence of depression in men (adjusted HR 0.65), but not in women. Our results support the recommendations of engaging in physical activity as a preventive strategy decreasing the risk for depression in both men and women. Furthermore, the exercise could reduce risk for depression in a dose-dependent matter, in particular in males.
The containment measures implemented to reduce the progression of the COVID-19 pandemic can increase the risk of serious mental disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The general fear of getting infected and the importance given to personal hygiene, may have a negative impact on this clinical population. In a group of patients with OCD who had completed an evidence-based therapeutic path for OCD before the quarantine, this study evaluated the changes on OCD symptoms during the quarantine and investigated the effects of contamination symptoms and remission state before the quarantine on OCD symptom worsening during the quarantine. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive (Y-BOCS) Severity score, administered before the quarantine, was re-administered after six weeks since the beginning of the complete lockdown. A significant increase in obsession and compulsion severity emerged. Remission status on OCD symptoms and having contamination symptoms before the quarantine were significantly associated with more elevated OCD symptom worsening during the quarantine. To our knowledge, this is the first study which assessed OCD symptoms at the COVID-19 time. Our results support the need to improve relapse prevention during the period of social restrictions and develop alternative strategies such as online consultations and digital psychiatric management.
Psychotic symptoms have been related to other coronavirus infections. We conducted a single-centre retrospective and observational study to describe new-onset psychotic episodes in COVID-19 patients. Ten patients infected by the novel coronavirus with psychotic symptoms and no previous history of psychosis were identified by the emergency and liaison psychiatry departments. Nine of the cases presented with psychotic symptoms at least two weeks after the first somatic manifestations attributed to COVID-19 and receiving pharmacological treatment. Structured delusions mixed with confusional features were the most frequent clinical presentations. Hence, COVID-19 patients can develop psychotic symptoms as a consequence of multiple concurrent factors.