SciCombinator

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Journal: Pneumonia (Nathan Qld.)

141

In children, necrotizing pneumonia (NP) is an uncommon, severe complication of pneumonia. It is characterized by destruction of the underlying lung parenchyma resulting in multiple small, thin-walled cavities and is often accompanied by empyema and bronchopleural fistulae.

Concepts: Lung, Pneumonia, Parenchyma, Ground tissue

140

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that remains an important public health problem at the global level. It is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality, due to the emergence of antibiotic resistant Mycobacterium strains and HIV co-infection. Over the past decade, important progress has been made for better control of the disease. While microscopy and culture continue to be indispensible for laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis, the range of several molecular diagnostic tests, including the nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS), have expanded tremendously. They are becoming more accessible not only for detection and identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in clinical specimens, but now extend to diagnosing multi-drug resistant strains. Molecular diagnostic tests provide timely results useful for high-quality patient care, low contamination risk, and ease of performance and speed. This review focuses on the current diagnostic tests in use, including emerging technologies used for detection of tuberculosis in clinical specimens. The sensitivity and specificity of these tests have also been taken into consideration.

139

Disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, the pneumococcus, remains a major source of illness in older persons. Globally, it remains the most important pathogen in respiratory infection deaths. Conjugated pneumococcal vaccines are used extensively in national pediatric programs, whereas a polysaccharide vaccine is used in all age groups, but mainly in the elderly and for high-risk groups. Recent data from the Netherlands led to the licensing in many countries of conjugated pneumococcal vaccines for older persons. There are substantial differences in recommendations from various national immunization technical advisory groups, which owe at least as much to differing assessments of available studies as to differences in local epidemiology. This review examines those differences and proposes a way forward.

Concepts: Immune system, Pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Vaccination, Streptococcus, Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Pneumococcal vaccine, Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine

135

We report a case of endogenous lipoid pneumonia secondary to long-term use of amiodarone (> 30 years) for atrial fibrillation in a 76-year-old Caucasian woman, presenting with cough and dyspnea. Endogenous Lipoid pneumonia is a rare underdiagnosed condition more prevalent in adults. It is usually asymptomatic and a diagnosis is generally made in patients who have become clinically unstable or when an abnormal lung shadow is found on a chest X-ray. In the case here described it was diagnosed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) where fat-laden macrophages (oil red O stain) were identified. Since a history of use of oil-based products had been ruled out, amiodarone was deemed to be the most likely cause of lipoid pneumonia. The patient was managed with the replacement of amiodarone with digoxin and treated with oral prednisolone. The patient has remained clinically stable with radiological improvement during a follow-up of two years.

134

Streptococcus pneumoniae is capable of causing multiple infectious syndromes and occasionally causes outbreaks. The objective of this review is to update prior outbreak reviews, identify control measures, and comment on transmission.

47

Childhood pneumonia continues to be a major infectious killer in India. WHO recommended respiratory rate and oxygen saturation (SpO2) measurements are not well implemented in Indian public health outpatient facilities with the result that treatment decision-making rely on subjective assessments from variably trained and supervised healthcare providers. The introduction of a multi-modal pulse oximeter (POx) that gives reliable measurements would mitigate incorrect diagnosis. In light of future potential use of pulse oximeter in peripheral health centres, it becomes important to measure accuracy of respiratory rate and oxygen saturation of such an instrument. The current study measures accuracy of plethysmography based respiratory rate (RR) using a pulse oximeter (Masimo Rad-G) by comparing it with a gold standard (pediatrician) measurement.

6

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are more susceptible to respiratory tract infections by other infectious agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi) as their disease progresses to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Despite effective antiretroviral therapy, bacterial pneumonia (the most frequently occurring HIV-associated pulmonary illness) remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the HIV-infected population. Over the last few decades, studies have looked at the role of atypical bacterial pneumonia (i.e. pneumonia that causes an atypical clinical presentation or responds differently to typical therapeutics) in association with HIV infection. Due to the lack of available diagnostic strategies, the lack of consideration, and the declining immunity of the patient, HIV co-infections with atypical bacteria are currently believed to be underreported. Thus, following an extensive database search, this review aimed to highlight the current knowledge and gaps regarding atypical bacterial pneumonia in HIV. The authors discuss the prevalence of Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Coxiella burnetii, Legionella species and others in the HIV-infected population as well as their clinical presentation, methods of detection, and treatment. Further studies looking at the role of these microbes in association with HIV are required. Increased knowledge of these atypical bacteria will lead to a more rapid diagnosis of these infections, resulting in an improved quality of life for the HIV-infected population.

Concepts: Antiretroviral drug, HIV, AIDS, Immune system, Infectious disease, Bacteria, Virus, Cytomegalovirus

5

Pneumonia is a serious health concern, but it does not attract the attention it warrants. Perhaps this is due to a lack of understanding of the real extent of this infectious disease in the general population.

4

Culture-independent sequencing methods are increasingly used to investigate the microbiota associated with human mucosal surfaces, including sites that have low bacterial load in healthy individuals (e.g. the lungs). Standard microbiota methods developed for analysis of high bacterial load specimens (e.g. stool) may require modification when bacterial load is low, as background contamination derived from sterile laboratory reagents and kits can dominate sequence data when few bacteria are present.

3

The International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases (ISPPD) is the premier global scientific symposium dedicated to the exchange, advancement and dissemination of the latest research on the pneumococcus, one of the world’s deadliest bacterial pathogens. Since the first ISPPD was held in 1998, substantial progress has been made to control pneumococcal disease, for instance, more than half of surviving infants (78.6 million) from 143 countries now have access to the life-saving pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). The 11th ISPPD (ISPPD-11) was held in Melbourne, Australia in April 2018 and the proceedings of the symposium are captured in this report. Twenty years on from the first ISPPD, there remain many challenges and unanswered questions such as the continued disparity in disease incidence in Indigenous populations, the slow roll-out of PCV in some regions such as Asia, the persisting burden of disease in adults, serotype replacement and diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia. ISPPD-11 also put the spotlight on cutting-edge science including metagenomic, transcriptomic, microscopy, medical imaging and mathematical modelling approaches. ISPPD-11 was highly diverse, bringing together 1184 delegates from 86 countries, representing various fields including academia, primary healthcare, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, policymakers and public health.