Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open


Significant improvements can be made in recoding surgical procedures, particularly in capturing high-quality video recordings from the surgeons' point of view. This study examined the utility of the GoPro HERO 3+ Black Edition camera for high-definition, point-of-view recordings of plastic and reconstructive surgery.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Plastic surgery, Surgeon, Reconstructive surgery, General surgery, Microsurgery, Rhinoplasty


Vaginoplasty aims to create a functional feminine vagina, sensate clitoris, and labia minora and majora with acceptable cosmesis. The upward trend in the number of transfemale vaginoplasties has impacted the number of published articles on this topic. Herein, we conducted an updated systematic review on complications and patient-reported outcomes.


Siliconoma from ruptured breast implants has been reported in multiple body sites, including but not limited to the breast parenchyma, axillary lymph nodes, upper arm, and even lower leg. In this regard, we report a rare case of distant silicone migration to the lower extremities after traumatic breast implant rupture. A 55-year-old Asian woman who received bilateral augmentation mammoplasty 20 years ago presented with ruptured breast implants from a car accident 2 years earlier. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed intracapsular and extracapsular rupture of the right breast implant, showing “linguine sign.” We removed the bilateral breast implants and performed capsulectomy and bilateral reduction mammoplasty using inverted-T incisions. The implant was confirmed as a smooth, silicone gel-filled mammary implant of 125 cm(3) by a Japanese manufacturer, Koken. During her regular follow-up outpatient visits, physical examination revealed 2.5- × 1.5-cm ill-defined, tender, subcutaneous nodules on both knees and 8.5- × 3.0-cm inflammatory changes in the inguinal area with persistent pain. Computed tomography showed no definite mass, but rather infiltrative, nonenhancing soft-tissue densities in the subcutaneous layers of the bilateral inguinal and knee areas. Surgical excision was performed, and pathologic findings confirmed variable vacuoles with foreign body reaction and fibrosis, consistent with siliconoma. It is important to acknowledge that siliconomas can be encountered in patients with ruptured breast implants, especially those manufactured decades ago. Our patient with masses as remote as the inguinal and knee areas is a prime example of how far siliconomas can migrate.

Concepts: Surgery, Implants, Plastic surgery, Breast, Surgical procedures, Breast reconstruction, Silicone, Breast implant


Against a background of globalization and medical migration, issues have been raised regarding training outside the clinician’s own context. Fellowship was not commonly used as a career step, or a means of migration, but as a process of professional and personal development. Taking Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Microsurgery Fellowship as the case study, I would like to highlight an example of a long-running successful training program in a special field such as plastic surgery.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Evaluation methods, Plastic surgery, Case study, Reconstructive surgery, Process, Microsurgery


Ideally, breast reconstruction is performed at the time of mastectomy in a single stage with minimal scarring. However, postoperative complications with direct-to-implant subpectoral reconstruction remain significant. These include asymmetry, flap necrosis, animation deformity, and discomfort. We report on a series of patients who have undergone immediate single-stage prepectoral, implant-based breast reconstruction with a smooth, adjustable saline implant covered with mesh/acellular dermal matrix for support using a vertical mastectomy incision. This technique, when combined with an adjustable implant, addresses the complications related to subpectoral implant placement of traditional expanders. Our follow-up time, 4.6 years (55 months), shows a low risk of implant loss and elimination of animation deformity while also providing patients with a safe and aesthetically pleasing result.

Concepts: Symmetry, Breast


To achieve consistent results utilizing facial injectables, practitioners must understand the pertinent anatomy of the forehead, temple, cheek, nose, and perioral areas. A detailed understanding of facial blood vessels, nerves, and musculature is essential for safe and effective placement of fillers and neuromodulators.

Concepts: Understanding, Heart, Blood vessel


Munchausen’s syndrome is a rare psychiatric disease. We report a case in which we have collaborated with the psychiatrist for the diagnosis and also propose a diagnostic flowchart.

Concepts: Medicine, Surgery, Greek loanwords, Physician, Psychiatry, Reconstructive surgery, Psychiatric medication, Microsurgery


Migraine headaches have not historically been considered a compression neuropathy. Recent studies suggest that some migraines are successfully treated by targeted peripheral nerve decompression. Other compression neuropathies have previously been associated with one another. The goal of this study is to evaluate whether an association exists between migraines and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), the most common compression neuropathy.

Concepts: Migraine, Paresthesia, Paracetamol, Wrist, Headaches, Carpal tunnel, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Neurological disorders


Objective assessments of the shapes of various parts of the body can be made using images acquired with multidetector row computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. These images can be useful for understanding the changes in body shape that accompany aging.

Concepts: Spin, Medical imaging, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Radiography, Magnetic resonance imaging, Radiology, 2000s music groups, Virtopsy


Keloids and hypertrophic scars represent excessive wound healing involving high production of collagen by skin fibroblasts. This review focuses on the role of high-mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB-1), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and vitamin D in these conditions. Although the role of HMGB-1 in keloids and hypertrophic scars is unclear, the effect of HMGB-1 on fibroblasts suggests a profibrotic role and a potential contribution to excessive scarring. MMPs contribute extensively to wound healing and characteristically degrade the extracellular matrix. MMP-1 is decreased in keloids and hypertrophic scars. However, other MMPs, including MMP-2, have been found to be increased and are thought to possibly contribute to keloid expansion through peripheral extracellular matrix catabolism. Many novel therapeutic approaches to keloids and hypertrophic scars target MMPs and aim to increase their levels and catabolic activity. The higher prevalence of keloids in darker skin types may partially be due to a tendency for lower vitamin D levels. The physiologically active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, inhibits the proliferation of keloid fibroblasts, and correlations between vitamin D receptor polymorphisms, such as the TaqI CC genotype, and keloid formation have been reported. Additionally, vitamin D may exert an antifibrotic effect partially mediated by MMPs. Here, we critically discuss whether keloid and hypertrophic scar formation could be predicted based on vitamin D status and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms. Specifically, the findings identified HMGB-1, MMPs, and vitamin D as potential avenues for further clinical investigation and potentially novel therapeutic approaches to prevent the development of keloids and hypertrophic scars.

Concepts: Scar, Wound healing, Collagen, Extracellular matrix, Fibroblast, Matrix metalloproteinase, Acne vulgaris, Keloid