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Journal: Paediatrics & child health


While terms such as ‘essential’ and ‘nonessential’ used amidst the COVID-19 pandemic may serve a practical purpose, they also pose a risk of obstructing our view of the harmful indirect health consequences of this crisis. SARS-CoV-2 cases and deaths in children are minimal compared to adults, but the pandemic impacts other ‘essential’ aspects of children’s health including child development and the associated areas of paediatric behaviour, mental health, and maltreatment. Alongside the management of severe SARS-CoV-2 cases in emergency rooms and intensive care units, continuing to care for children with developmental disabilities must also be concurrently championed as ‘essential’ during this crisis. The potentially devastating lifelong effects of the pandemic and isolation on an already vulnerable population demand that action be taken now. Video conferences and phone calls are ‘essential’ instruments we can use to continue to provide quality care for our patients.


Students experience fear, pain, and fainting during vaccinations at school. While evidence-based interventions exist, no Knowledge Translation (KT) interventions have been developed to mitigate these symptoms. A multidisciplinary team-the Pain Pain Go Away Team-was assembled to address this knowledge-to-care gap. This manuscript provides an overview of the methodology, knowledge products, and impact of an evidence-based KT program developed and implemented to improve the vaccination experience at school.


Firearm injuries are a significant and preventable cause of death in Canadian youth. Adolescent and young adult males are disproportionately affected; however, firearm-related deaths occur in youth of all ages. Canada’s rate of firearm ownership is lower than that of the USA, but high compared with other upper-income countries. The availability of firearms to youth is an important factor in adolescent suicide, unintentional firearm deaths, gang homicide and school shootings. Guns should not be kept in homes or environments where children and adolescents live or play. Screening for the presence of a firearm in the home is an essential part of the safety assessment of a depressed or suicidal youth, and removal of the firearm from the home must be recommended in this situation. Legislative measures to strictly control the acquisition, transport, ownership and storage of firearms, and to reduce smuggling of firearms, are also recommended.

Concepts: Death, United States, Adolescence, Youth, Suicide, Firearm, Gun, Firearms


Paediatricians and other primary care providers are well positioned to provide or coordinate ongoing medical and psychosocial care and support services for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This statement provides recommendations and information on a range of interventions and resources, to help paediatric care providers optimize care for children with ASD and support their families. The management of ASD includes treating medical and psychiatric co-morbidities, behavioural and developmental interventions, and providing supportive social care services to enhance quality of life for affected children and families.


Concussion has emerged as an important public health issue affecting thousands of Canadians annually. Health care providers including paediatricians, family and emergency medicine physicians, nurses, and nurse practitioners are commonly tasked with the responsibility of providing primary care to patients with acute concussion and those with persistent post-concussion symptoms. In July 2017, Parachute, in collaboration with the Public Health Agency of Canada and Sport Canada released the Canadian Guideline on Concussion in Sport that outlines a standardized and evidence-based approach to the recognition, diagnosis, and management of youth and adults with suspected concussion. In this report, we provide a brief overview of the important roles of primary care providers in the medical assessment, management, and prevention of concussion as outlined in this national best practice guideline.


Indigenous populations are disproportionately affected by kidney failure at younger ages than other ethnic groups in Canada. As symptoms do not occur until disease is advanced, early kidney disease risk is often unrecognized.


To be time and resource efficient in neonatal research and to answer clinically relevant questions with validity and generalizability, large numbers of infants from multiple hospitals need to be included. Multijurisdictional research in Canada is currently fraught with research ethics review process hurdles that lead to delays, administrative costs, and possibly termination of projects. We describe our experience applying for ethics review to 13 sites in 7 provinces for a project comparing two standard of care therapies for preterm born infants with respiratory distress syndrome. We welcome the current opportunity created by the Institute of Human Development Child and Youth Health and the Institute for Genetics, to collaboratively identify practical solutions that would benefit Canadian researchers, Research Ethics Boards, and children and families.


The American College of Physicians defines high-value care (HVC) as health care that balances clinical benefit with costs and harms with the goal of improving patient outcomes. We present a novel 2-hour workshop developed for general paediatric residents designed to promote reflective practice on resource stewardship and raise awareness of costs of medical care in hospitalized children. The workshop impact was assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Preworkshop, 2-week postworkshop, and 6-month postworkshop electronic surveys were completed by 18 of 43 workshop participants (42% survey participation rate, 100% follow-up in postworkshop surveys) revealing increased knowledge and retention. Thematic analysis performed on ‘lessons learned’ and ‘action plans’ provided by participants at the end of the workshop yielded rich data with key findings from learners that included critical thinking about their management and reflecting on nonmonetary costs. Future directions include faculty development and assessment of impact on patient care.


Grâce aux progrès de la médecine et aux innovations en technologies de la santé, de nombreux enfants atteints d'affections au pronostic réservé vivent désormais plus longtemps. Ces enfants sont souvent qualifiés d'« enfants ayant des problèmes médicaux complexes », parce qu'ils ont des affections chroniques, utilisent davantage les soins de santé et sont dépendants de la technologie. La complexité de leurs soins et leur fragilité intrinsèque entraînent des risques plus élevés d'erreurs de médication, autant dans un contexte ambulatoire qu'hospitalier. Le taux élevé de fragmentation des soins, de mauvaise communication et de polypharmacie chez les enfants ayant des problèmes médicaux complexes accroissent les possibilités d'erreurs, particulièrement au moment de changer de milieu de soins et de praticiens. Il n'existe pas de données sur les facteurs qui contribuent à un risque plus élevé d'erreurs de médication dans cette population et sur les meilleures mesures pour les éviter. Le présent point de pratique fournit des directives cliniques aux professionnels de la santé afin de s'assurer d'une utilisation sécuritaire des médicaments auprès des enfants ayant des problèmes médicaux complexes et s'attarde sur des stratégies pratiques applicables à la fois en soins ambulatoires et hospitaliers.


Due to advances in medical care and innovations in health technology, many children with life-limiting conditions are now living longer. These children are often referred to as ‘children with medical complexity (CMC)’, and they are characterized by chronic conditions, increased health care utilization, and technology dependence. Their complexity of care and inherent fragility lead to higher risk for medication errors, both in-community and in-hospital. High rates of care fragmentation, miscommunication, and polypharmacy in CMC increase opportunities for error, particularly as children transition between health care settings and practitioners. Data on the factors contributing to higher risk of medication errors in this population and how they can be effectively addressed are lacking. This practice point provides clinical guidance for health care professionals to ensure medication safety when caring for CMC, with focus on practical strategies for outpatient and inpatient care.