SciCombinator

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Journal: Oncology letters

168

SOFT TISSUE TUMORS ARE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THEIR HISTOLOGICAL RESEMBLANCE TO NORMAL ADULT TISSUES AND CAN BE GROUPED INTO THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES BASED ON METASTATIC POTENTIAL: benign, intermediate (locally aggressive), intermediate (rarely metastasizing) and malignant. Over the past two decades, considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the genetic background of soft tissue tumors. Traditional laboratory techniques, such as cytogenetic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), can be used for diagnostic purposes in soft tissue pathology practice. Moreover, cytogenetic and molecular studies are often necessary for prognostics and follow-up of soft tissue sarcoma patients. This review provides updated information on the applicability of laboratory genetic testing in the diagnosis of benign and intermediate soft tissue tumors. These tumors include nodular fasciitis, chondroid lipoma, collagenous fibroma (desmoplastic fibroblastoma), giant cell tumor of tendon sheath (GCTTS)/pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS), angiofibroma of soft tissue, myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS) and ossifying fibromyxoid tumor (OFMT).

Concepts: Genetics, Cancer, Oncology, Extracellular matrix, Soft tissue sarcoma, Anatomical pathology, Fluorescent in situ hybridization, Cytogenetics

168

The current study sought to assess the role of paraaortic lymphadenectomy (LNE) in females with endometrial cancer. A retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer of stage IA to II preoperatively, between 2009 and 2011 was conducted. Patients were included who had suffered from endometrial cancer without preoperative adjuvant therapy and who underwent hysterectomy plus systematic pelvic LNE and paraaortic LNE by laparoscopy or laparotomy. A total of 54 patients who underwent surgery for preoperative endometrial cancer were selected. All patients underwent LNE. The incidences of pelvic and paraaortic lymph node metastases were 11.1% (6/54) and 7.4% (4/54), with a total positive lymph node rate of 14.8% (8/54). In addition, among the 8 positive cases, 5 patients underwent laparotomy and 3 underwent laparoscopy; 3 cases were classified as stage I and 5 as stage II preoperatively. Of these, 7 patients were identified with pathology-related risk factors, including low differentiation or clear cell adenocarcinoma postoperatively. Discordance of pathological differentiation between the pre- and postoperative stages reached 57.1% (4/7). The results revealed the high occurrence of positive lymph nodes in endometrial cancer which demonstrate the importance of systematic LNE. Additonally, no severe complications were caused by LNE besides lymph cysts. In summary, it is neccesary to perform LNE, particularly the removal of the paraaortic lymph node, in patients with endometrial cancers in order to improve postoperative therapy. Laparoscopy has similar surgical effects as laparotomy, but has a number of advantages.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Lymph node, Surgery, Endometrial cancer, Paraaortic lymph node

156

A 62-year-old female with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1; also von Recklinghausen’s disease) was diagnosed with a giant, thick-walled tubular mass, mainly located in the right abdominal area on computed tomography, following an examination for intermittent abdominal pain and increasing abdominal distension. According to the clinical manifestations and imaging features, the giant tubular mass was considered most likely to be a dilated fallopian tube associated with infection, while the possibility of obstructed bowel loops was excluded. However, the subsequent laparotomy revealed a giant appendix, caused by a large neurofibroma in the root region of the appendix, which occluded the lumen. Neurofibroma of the appendix is extremely rare, even in patients with NF1. To the best of our knowledge, only three such cases have previously been reported in the English literature to date.

Concepts: Neurology, Abdominal pain, Bowel obstruction, Neurofibromatosis type I, Neurofibromatosis, Abdominal distension, Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen, Café au lait spot

20

The aim of the present population-based cohort study was to analyze the association between the prevalence of 32 types of human papilloma virus (HPV) in 615 female patients with abnormal cervical cytopathology findings. In total, 32 HPV types were screened by DNA array technology. HPV infection was detected in 470 women (76.42%), 419 of whom (89.15%) were infected with ≥1 high-risk (HR)-HPV type. HPV16, which is recognized as the main HR-HPV type responsible for the development of cervical cancer, was observed in 32.98% of HPV(+) participants, followed by HPV42 (18.09%), HPV31 (17.66%), HPV51 (13.83%), HPV56 (10.00%), HPV53 (8.72%) and HPV66 (8.72%). The prevalence of HR-HPV types, which may be suppressed directly (in the case of HPV16 and 18), or possibly via cross-protection (in the case of HPV31) following vaccination, was considerably lower in participants ≤22 years of age (HPV16, 28.57%; HPV18, 2.04%; HPV31, 6.12%), compared with participants 23-29 years of age (HPV16, 45.71%; HPV18, 7.86%; HPV31, 22.86%), who were less likely to be vaccinated. Consequently, the present study hypothesizes that there may be a continuous shift in the prevalence of HPV types as a result of vaccination. Furthermore, the percentage of non-vaccine HR-HPV types was higher than expected, considering that eight HPV types formerly classified as ‘low-risk’ or ‘probably high-risk’ are in fact HR-HPV types. Therefore, it may be important to monitor non-vaccine HPV types in future studies, and an investigation concerning several HR-HPV types as risk factors for the development of cervical cancer is required.

Concepts: Immune system, Human papillomavirus, Cervical cancer, Papillomavirus, HPV vaccine, Gardasil, Anal cancer, Cervarix

18

The chemopreventive activity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), particularly aspirin, has been well demonstrated in preclinical and clinical studies. However, the primary side effect from this class of drug is gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, which has limited the widespread use of NSAIDs for the prevention of cancer. The development of GI-safer NSAIDs, which are associated with phosphatidylcholine (PC) may provide a solution to this therapeutic problem. In the present study, the efficacy of two NSAIDs, aspirin and indomethacin, were compared using murine colon cancer cell line MC-26. Each NSAID was assessed alone and in combination with PC, using in vitro and in vivo systems. The results reveal that the PC-associated NSAIDs had a significantly higher degree of protection against cancer cell growth compared with the unmodified NSAIDs. It was also observed that Aspirin-PC and Indomethacin-PC prevented the metastatic spread of cancer cells in a syngeneic mouse model. These results support the potential use of PC-NSAIDs for the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer.

14

Damnacanthal, an anthraquinone compound, is isolated from the roots of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni), which has been used for traditional therapy in several chronic diseases, including cancer. Although noni has long been consumed in Asian and Polynesian countries, the molecular mechanisms by which it exerts several benefits are starting to emerge. In the present study, the effect of damnacanthal on MCF-7 cell growth regulation was investigated. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with damnacanthal for 72 h indicated an antiproliferative activity. The MTT method confirmed that damnacanthal inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells at the concentration of 8.2 μg/ml for 72 h. In addition, the drug was found to induce cell cycle arrest at the G1 checkpoint in MCF-7 cells by cell cycle analysis. Damnacanthal induced apoptosis, determined by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (PI) dual-labeling, acridine-orange/PI dyeing and caspase-7 expression. Furthermore, damnacanthal-mediated apoptosis involves the sustained activation of p21, leading to the transcription of p53 and the Bax gene. Overall, the present study provided significant evidence demonstrating that p53-mediated damnacanthal induced apoptosis through the activation of p21 and caspase-7.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Gene expression, Cancer, Breast cancer, Apoptosis, Chemotherapy, Cell cycle

10

Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation was classified in 2011 as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organisation. Evidence of the risk of cancer risk has since strengthened. Exposure is changing due to the rapid development of technology resulting in increased ambient radiation. RF radiation of sufficient intensity heats tissues, but the energy is insufficient to cause ionization, hence it is called non-ionizing radiation. These non-thermal exposure levels have resulted in biological effects in humans, animals and cells, including an increased cancer risk. In the present study, the levels of RF radiation were measured in an apartment close to two groups of mobile phone base stations on the roof. A total of 74,531 measurements were made corresponding to ~83 h of recording. The total mean RF radiation level was 3,811 µW/m2 (range 15.2-112,318 µW/m2) for the measurement of the whole apartment, including balconies. Particularly high levels were measured on three balconies and 3 of 4 bedrooms. The total mean RF radiation level decreased by 98% when the measured down-links from the base stations for 2, 3 and 4 G were disregarded. The results are discussed in relation to the detrimental health effects of non-thermal RF radiation. Due to the current high RF radiation, the apartment is not suitable for long-term living, particularly for children who may be more sensitive than adults. For a definitive conclusion regarding the effect of RF radiation from nearby base stations, one option would be to turn them off and repeat the measurements. However, the simplest and safest solution would be to turn them off and dismantle them.

9

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a lethal disease with a 5-year survival rate of <5%, the lowest of all types of cancer. The diagnosis of pancreatic cancer relies on imaging and tissue biopsy, and the only curative therapy is complete surgical resection. Pancreatic cancer has the propensity to metastasise at an early stage and the majority of patients are diagnosed when surgery is no longer an option. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify biomarkers to enable early diagnosis, and to develop new therapeutic strategies. One approach for this involves targeting cancer-associated glycans. The most widely used serological marker in pancreatic cancer is the carbohydrate antigen CA 19-9 which contains a glycan known as sialyl Lewis A (sLeA). The CA 19-9 assay is used routinely to monitor response to treatment, but concerns have been raised about its sensitivity and specificity as a diagnostic biomarker. In addition to sLeA, a wide range of alterations to other important glycans have been observed in pancreatic cancer. These include increases in the sialyl Lewis X antigen (sLex), an increase in truncated O-glycans (Tn and sTn), increased branched and fucosylated N-glycans, upregulation of specific proteoglycans and galectins, and increased O-GlcNAcylation. Growing evidence supports crucial roles for glycans in all stages of cancer progression, and it is well established that glycans regulate tumour proliferation, invasion and metastasis. The present review describes the biological significance of glycans in pancreatic cancer, and discusses the clinical value of exploiting aberrant glycosylation to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this deadly disease.

8

Despite all efforts at management, prognosis of advanced lung cancer is extremely poor, with a median survival time of ~1 year. The number of cancer patients aged >70 years is significantly increased among the cancer patient population. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical importance of age in lung cancer. Data from 110 patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer, who were treated and followed up in the Institute of Oncology, University of Istanbul, were recorded from medical charts. There were 100 (91%) males with a median age of 59 years (range, 35-88 years). The majority of patients had non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC; 84%) and metastatic stage (56%). The rate of positive response to chemotherapy was lower in elderly patients (P=0.01) and the incidence of anemia was higher compared with that in younger patients (P=0.02). The majority of mortalities occurred in elderly patients (P=0.01). The median survival time of elderly patients was significantly lower compared with that of younger patients (37.8 vs. 57 weeks; P=0.009). The 1-year survival rates in younger and elderly patients were 67.3 and 42.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, elderly patients also had significantly poorer survival (P=0.023). In the group of elderly patients, analyses revealed that significant prognostic factors, including stage of disease and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, were associated with survival. Elderly patients diagnosed with small cell lung cancer had a poorer outcome compared with those with NSCLC (P=0.009), and older patients with elevated serum LDH levels had a shorter survival time compared with those with normal levels (P=0.042). In conclusion, age is one of the major prognostic factors affecting survival in lung cancer patients; therefore, patients should be managed according to age in clinical practice.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Lung cancer, Non-small cell lung carcinoma, Cancer staging, Lactate dehydrogenase, Small cell carcinoma

7

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the leading cause of mortality for oral cancer. Numerous risk factors mainly related to unhealthy habits and responsible for chronic inflammation and infections have been recognized as predisposing factors for oral carcinogenesis. Recently, even microbiota alterations have been associated with the development of human cancers. In particular, some specific bacterial strains have been recognized and strongly associated with oral cancer development (Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Fusobacterium spp., Streptococcus spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella spp.). Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain how the oral microbiota could be involved in cancer pathogenesis by mainly paying attention to chronic inflammation, microbial synthesis of cancerogenic substances, and alteration of epithelial barrier integrity. Based on knowledge of the carcinogenic effects of dysbiosis, it was recently suggested that probiotics may have anti-tumoral activity. Nevertheless, few data exist with regard to probiotic effects on oral cancer. On this basis, the association between the development of oral cancer and oral dysbiosis is discussed focusing attention on the potential benefits of probiotics administration in cancer prevention.