Journal: Journal of travel medicine
Rising antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a threat to modern medicine and increasing international mobility facilitates the spread of AMR. Infections with resistant organisms have higher morbidity and mortality, are costlier to treat, result in longer hospital stays, and place a greater burden on health systems than infections caused by susceptible organisms. Here we review the role of travel in the international dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and consider actions at the levels of travelers, travel medicine practitioners, and policymakers that would mitigate this threat.
Passengers on repatriation flights to Greece from the UK, Spain and Turkey were screened with oropharyngeal swabs on arrival for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Despite almost all passengers being asymptomatic, many tested positive (3.6% from UK, 6.3% from Spain and 6.3% from Turkey), indicating widespread transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in these countries.
Photography is an integral component of the international travel experience. Self-photography is becoming a mainstream behaviour in society and it has implications for the practice of travel medicine. Travellers who take selfies, including with the use of selfie sticks, may be subject to traumatic injuries associated with this activity. This review article is the first in the medical literature to address this emerging phenomenon.
We present a case of COVID-19 pneumonia associated with spontaneous pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema.
Pregnant travelers and their offspring are vulnerable to severe outcomes following a wide range of infections. Vaccine preventable diseases can have a particularly severe course in pregnant women, but little is known about the safety of travel vaccines in pregnant women. We performed a systematic review of all published literature concerning the safety of vaccines frequently given to travelers such as yellow fever, MMR (mumps, measles, and rubella), influenza, Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis), meningococcus, hepatitis A and B, rabies, polio, typhoid fever, tick-borne encephalitis, and Japanese encephalitis vaccines. We included case series, cohort studies, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). For the meta-analysis we included only RCTs that compared the administration of a vaccine to placebo or to no vaccine. Outcome measures included severe systemic adverse events, maternal outcomes related to the course of pregnancy, neonatal outcomes, and local adverse events. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) as the summary measure. The safety of influenza vaccine is supported by high-quality evidence. For Tdap vaccine no evidence of any harm was found in the meta-analysis of RCTs. A slight increase in chorioamnionitis rate was reported in three out of twelve observational studies. However, this small possible risk is far outweighed by a much larger benefit in terms of infant morbidity and mortality. Meningococcal vaccines are probably safe during pregnancy, as supported by RCTs comparing meningococcal vaccines to other vaccines. Data from observational studies support the safety of hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and rabies vaccines, as well as that of the live attenuated yellow fever vaccine. We found little or no data about the safety of polio, typhoid, Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis and MMR vaccines during pregnancy.
The ongoing economic and political crisis in Venezuela has resulted in a collapse of the healthcare system and the re-emergence of previously controlled or eliminated infectious diseases. There has also been an exodus of Venezuelan international migrants in response to the crisis. We sought to describe the infectious disease risks faced by Venezuelan nationals and assess the international mobility patterns of the migrant population.
Concerns have been raised about unauthorized immigrants importing measles to the United States (US). This potential risk has not been rigorously evaluated nor compared with the potential risk of measles importation by US residents traveling internationally or international travellers coming to the US. We compared the potential risk of measles importation from each of these populations.
Respiratory viruses spread in humans across wide geographical areas in short periods of time, resulting in high levels of morbidity and mortality. We undertook a systematic review to assess the evidence that air, ground and sea mass transportation systems or hubs are associated with propagating influenza and coronaviruses.
During spring 2014, two large influenza outbreaks occurred among cruise ship passengers and crew on trans-hemispheric itineraries.
COVID-19 was first reported in Iran on 19 February, 2020. We estimated the initial basic reproduction number to be 4.86. With increasingly stringent public health measures, the effective reproduction number declined to below 1 after 2 months.