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Journal: Journal of sport rehabilitation


Context: Iliotibial-band syndrome (ITBS) is a common overuse running injury. There is inconclusive evidence to support current management strategies, and few advances have been made in the past few years. New management approaches should thus be developed and evaluated. Objective: To assess the effects of a real-time running-retraining program on lower-extremity biomechanics, pain while running, and function. Design: Single-subject experimental study. Setting: University motion-analysis laboratory. Participant: Female recreational runner with ITBS. Intervention: Nine real-time running-retraining sessions were implemented based on the biomechanical alterations of the participant’s symptomatic lower limb, including pelvic and knee movement in the transverse plane, as well as foot movement in the frontal plane. Real-time visual feedback of the pelvic-rotation angle was provided during the running-retraining sessions. Main Outcome Measurements: 3-dimensional lower-extremity running kinematics, pain on a verbal analog scale while running on a treadmill, and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS). Results: Pelvic external rotation decreased, although the aim was to increase pelvic external rotation and knee rotation. The foot-progression angle improved after the intervention and at 1-mo follow-up. There was a 12.5% improvement in running time, and the pain score while running improved by 50% postintervention; these improvements were maintained at 1-mo follow-up. The mean LEFS score, indicative of function, improved by 8.75% and by 10% at the end of the intervention and at 1-mo follow-up, respectively. Conclusion: The real-time running-retraining program improved pain while running, as well as function, and was effective in addressing the lower-limb biomechanical alterations of the knee and foot in a female runner with ITBS. The application, effectiveness, and feasibility of real-time training should be addressed in larger studies in the future.

Concepts: Better, Improve, Effectiveness, Knee, Anatomy, Coronal plane, Transverse plane, Iliotibial band syndrome


Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is one of the common overuse running injuries. There is inconclusive evidence to support current management strategies, and few advances have been made in the past few years. New management approaches should thus be developed and evaluated.

Concepts: Running, Iliotibial band syndrome, Iliotibial tract


Evidence-based best practices for the recognition and treatment of exertional heat stroke (EHS) identifies that rectal thermometry and immediate and aggressive cooling via cold-water immersion ensures survival from this medical condition. However, little is known about the recovery, medical follow-up, and return-to-activity after an athlete has suffered EHS.

Concepts: Medicine, Avicenna, Best practice, Medical thermometer


Both female participation in soccer and associated injuries has greatly increased in recent years. One such issue is the 2-9 times greater incidence of non-contact ACL injuries in females relative to males in comparable sports. Several factors such as limb dominance and sporting history have been proposed to play a role in ACL incidence rates between males and females. However, evidence about the effects of these factors and how they interact with sex is mixed and thus no consensus exists.


Body composition assessments of high-performance athletes are very important for identifying physical performance potential. Although the relationship between the kinanthropometric characteristics and performance abilities of Olympic swimmers is extremely important, this subject is not completely understood for Paralympic swimmers.

Concepts: Assessment, Diving, Swimming


Epidemiological data demonstrate the need for lower extremity injury prevention training. Neuromuscular control (NMC) programs are immediately effective at minimizing lower extremity injury risk and improving sport-related performance measures. Research investigating lasting effects following an injury prevention program is limited.

Concepts: Public health, Epidemiology, Improve, Computer program, Program, Program management, Basketball


Taken into account the complex structure of the diaphragm and its important role in the postural chain, we were prompted to check the effects of a diaphragm technique on hamstring flexibility.

Concepts: The Canon of Medicine, Randomized controlled trial, Complexity


Many studies explored closed kinetic chain shoulder exercises (CKCSEs) with a sling because they are safer and more effective than open chain exercises, especially in early stages of treatment. However, the application of CKCSE in youth baseball players has been rarely attempted, although teenage baseball players also experience shoulder pain.

Concepts: Baseball, Major League Baseball, Softball, Little League Baseball, Amateur baseball in the United States, Little League World Series


Lateral epicondylalgia, pain at the lateral elbow, is commonly associated with extensor carpi radialis brevis tendinopathy. The radial head, which abuts the extensor tendons and is elliptical in shape, may affect the extensor tendons during pronation of the forearm. Cadaverous studies have shown that the radial head may act as a cam in pronation, to offer a mechanical advantage to the common extensor tendon and to mitigate load on the origin of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon.

Concepts: Forearm, Tendon, Brachioradialis, Tendinopathy, Flexor carpi radialis muscle, Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle, Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle


Injuries to the posterior thigh are common in athletics. Hamstring injuries result in significant time lost from participation and impair health-related quality of life. Previous research has determined that hamstring injuries are related to poor hamstring flexibility. Therefore, increasing hamstring flexibility through clinical stretching interventions may be an effective means to prevent hamstring injuries. It is evident that hamstring stretching, whether using a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) or static method, can increase hamstring flexibility. However, it is unclear if greater hamstring flexibility can be achieved through PNF or static stretching techniques. Therefore, the purpose of this critically appraised topic was to determine if PNF stretching programs are more effective than static stretching programs in immediately increasing hamstring flexibility in healthy adults.

Concepts: Effectiveness, Exercise, Meaning of life, PNF stretching, Passive stretching