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Journal: Journal of science and medicine in sport / Sports Medicine Australia


The attenuation of the number and severity of infections is of importance to athletes. Probiotics use has increased over recent years with beneficial effects believed to include improvements in immune function. Research has focused on their effectiveness for reducing the number, duration and severity of infections amongst endurance athletes. At present no research has been undertaken with team sport athletes. This randomised controlled trial aimed to determine the effectiveness of probiotics on the number, duration and severity of infections amongst elite union rugby players.

Concepts: Rugby union, Rugby football


To determine the associations between post-game recovery protocols and physical and perceptual recovery, and game performance in Australian Football League players.

Concepts: Cognition, Mind, Adelaide, Football, Australian rules football, Melbourne, Australian Football League, Tom Wills


To determine the effect of contouring of an in-shoe foot orthosis on plantar contact area and surface pressure, as well as perceived comfort and support at the foot-orthosis interface during stationary cycling.

Concepts: Pressure, Differential geometry, Orthotics, Ankle-foot orthosis, Contour, Podiatry


To determine whether differences in training status, body composition and/or habitual caffeine intake influenced serum caffeine concentrations following caffeine ingestion.

Concepts: Caffeine


To investigate the frequency of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism in elite endurance triathletes, and whether ACTN3 R577X is significantly associated with performance time.

Concepts: Ironman World Championship, World Wrestling Entertainment


To describe the epidemiology of competition and training-based surf sport-related injury in Australia in the years 2003-2011.


Proprioceptive ability has been suggested to underpin elite sports performance. Accordingly, this study examined the relationship between an athlete’s proprioceptive ability, competition level achieved, and years of sport-specific training.

Concepts: Social class


Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the heart rate reserve (HRR) at first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT’s) in postmenopausal women and compare it with optimal intensity range recommended by the ACSM (40-84%HRR). An additional aim was to evaluate whether a higher aerobic power level corresponded to a higher HRR at VT’s. Methods Fifty-eight postmenopausal women participated in this study (aged 48-69). A graded 25Wmin(-2) cycle ergometer (Monark E839) exercise protocol was performed in order to assess aerobic power. The heart rate and gas-exchange variables were measured continuously using a portable gas analyzer system (Cosmed K4b). The first (VT(1)) and the second (VT(2)) VT’s were determined by the time course curves of ventilation and O(2) and CO(2) ventilatory equivalents. A K-means clustering analysis was used in order to identify VO(2max) groups (cut-off of 30.5mlkg(-1)min(-1)) and differences were evaluated by an independent sample t-test. Bland-Altman plots were performed to illustrate the agreement between methods. Results The women’s HRR values at VT(1) were similar to 40%HRR in both VO(2max) groups. At VT(2) both VO(2max) groups exhibited negative differences (P<0.01) for the predicted 84%HRR intensity (-14.46% in the lower VO(2max) group and -16.32% in the higher VO(2max) group). Conclusions An upper limit of 84% overestimates the %HRR value for the second ventilatory threshold, suggesting that the cardiorespiratory target zone for this population should be lower and narrower (40-70%HRR).

Concepts: Pulse, Student's t-test, Heart rate, The Higher, Thresholds, Threshold, Limit superior and limit inferior, K-means clustering


To investigate the impact of training modification on achieving performance goals. Previous research demonstrates an inverse relationship between injury burden and success in team sports. It is unknown whether this relationship exists within individual sport such as athletics.

Concepts: Track and field athletics


OBJECTIVES: To determine if a morning training session could alter afternoon physical performance. Moreover, as testosterone (T) and cortisol © concentrations are significant predictors of physical performance, and both show circadian declines across the day, we examined the effects of morning training on diurnal T and C responses. DESIGN: Eighteen semi-professional rugby union players completed this randomised and counter-balanced study. METHODS: Following morning saliva collection (0900h), players completed a control (rested), Sprint (5×40m) or Weights (3 repetition-maximum [RM] bench press and squat) trial. In the afternoon (15:00h) of each trial, a further saliva sample was collected before players completed a performance test (3RM back squat and bench press, 40m sprint, countermovement jump [CMJ]). RESULTS: Salivary T concentrations declined from am to pm under Control and Sprint, but not under Weights. Delta T, from am to pm, was greater under Control (-10.9±2.4pgml(-1)) compared to Sprints (-6.2±7.1pgml(-1)) and Weights (-1.2±5.5pgml(-1)) (p≤0.001). Delta C, from am to pm, was greater under Control compared to both Sprint and Weights (p<0.05). Players elicited better CMJ peak power, 40-m time, 3RM bench and squat performance under Weights compared with Control and Sprint (p<0.05). Faster 40-m times were seen under Sprint, when compared to Control (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Performing morning strength training is associated with improved physical performance in the afternoon. Additionally, the circadian decline in T concentrations appeared offset by morning training. However, it is unclear if T concentrations are, in part, causal of these improved responses or simply a reflective marker.

Concepts: Better, Improve, Test method, Bench press, Powerlifting, Weight training exercises, Spotting