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Journal: Journal of neurointerventional surgery


Intravenous thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator is standard treatment in acute stroke today. The benefit of endovascular treatment has been questioned. Recently, studies evaluating endovascular treatment and intravenous thrombolysis compared with intravenous thrombolysis alone, have reported improved outcome for the intervention group. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing endovascular treatment in addition to intravenous thrombolysis with intravenous thrombolysis alone.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Randomized controlled trial, Stroke, Thrombosis, Pulmonary embolism, Tissue plasminogen activator, Thrombolysis, Plasmin


The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted established care paths worldwide. Patient awareness of the pandemic and executive limitations imposed on public life have changed the perception of when to seek care for acute conditions in some cases. We sought to study whether there is a delay in presentation for acute ischemic stroke patients in the first month of the pandemic in the US.


The International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10) is a new system that is a federally mandated change affecting all payers and providers, and is expected to exceed both the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and Y2K in terms of costs and risks. In 2003, HIPAA named ICD-9 as the code set for supporting diagnoses and procedures in electronic administrative transactions. However, on 16 January 2009, the Department of Health and Human Services published a regulation requiring the replacement of ICD-9 with ICD-10 as of 1 October 2013. While ICD-9 and ICD-10 have a similar type of hierarchy in their structures, ICD-10 is more complex and incorporates numerous changes. Overall, ICD-10 contains more than 141 000 codes, a whopping 712% increase over the <20 000 codes in ICD-9, creating enormous complexities, confusion and expense. Published statistics illustrate that there are instances where a single ICD-9 code can map to more than 50 distinct ICD-10 codes. Also, there are multiple instances where a single ICD-10 code can map to more than one ICD-9 code. Proponents of the new ICD-10 system argue that the granularity should lead to improvements in the quality of healthcare whereas detractors of the system see the same granularity as burdensome. The estimated cost per physician is projected to range from $25 000 to $50 000.

Concepts: Health care, Medicare, Health insurance, Code, Source code, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, ICD-10, National Provider Identifier


Component coding is the method NeuroInterventionalists have used for the past 20 years to bill procedural care. The term refers to separate billing for each discrete aspect of a surgical or interventional procedure, and has typically allowed billing the procedural activity, such as catheterization of vessels, separately from the diagnostic evaluation of radiographic images. This work is captured by supervision and interpretation codes. Benefits of component coding will be reviewed in this article. The American Medical Association/Specialty Society Relative Value Scale Update Committee has been filtering for codes that are frequently reported together. NeuroInterventional procedures are going to be caught in this filter as our codes are often reported simultaneously as for example routinely occurs when procedural codes are coupled to those for supervision and interpretation. Unfortunately, history has shown that when bundled codes have been reviewed at the RUC, there has been a trend to lower overall RVU value for the combined service compared with the sum of the values of the separate services.

Concepts: Summation, Addition, Value, Code, Object-oriented programming, Filter, Integrity, Interventional neuroradiology


BACKGROUND: Endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms relies on coaxial catheter support systems to provide safe and stable access. Large-bore distal intracranial catheters have become necessary for aneurysm treatment with flow diverting devices including the Pipeline embolization device (PED). These catheters must accommodate 0.027 inch microcatheters, be supple enough to track distally and be able to provide sufficient support for manipulations required for PED deployment. METHODS: A single-center aneurysm database was reviewed to identify patients who underwent anterior circulation aneurysm embolization with the PED while using the Navien distal intracranial catheter. Data were collected regarding the equipment used, cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) tortuosity, intraprocedural Navien positions and periprocedural complications. RESULTS: The Navien catheter (5 Fr, 0.070 inch outer diameter, 0.058 inch inner diameter, 115 cm) was used in 78 cases of anterior circulation PED. It was tracked into position over a Marksman microcatheter in 76 of the 78 cases (97%). The final catheter tip position was in the cervical ICA (1/78, 1%), petrous ICA (23/78, 30%), proximal cavernous ICA (48/78, 62%), distal cavernous/clinoidal ICA (3/78, 4%), supraclinoid ICA (2/78, 2%) and the M1 segment (1/78, 2%). In each case the catheter was tracked to its desired position (100% clinical success) despite significant proximal vessel tortuosity in 34 cases (44%). No clinically significant catheter-related complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The Navien intracranial catheter is an important component of the triaxial system for embolization of cerebral aneurysms with the PED. This catheter is highly trackable to distal positions, atraumatic and provides sufficient support for the microcatheter manipulations used during typical PED deployments.

Concepts: Internal carotid artery, Common carotid artery, Posterior communicating artery, External carotid artery, Aneurysm, Cerebral aneurysm, Catheter, Cavernous sinus


Pulsatile tinnitus can result from various vascular etiologies that cause transmission of pulsatile turbulent flow into the inner ear. Less commonly, non-vascular sources cause increased blood flow and transmission of sound perceived as tinnitus. Thorough clinical examination leads to appropriate imaging evaluation and therapeutic planning. Most pulsatile tinnitus results from expected mechanisms, such as dural arteriovenous fistula, jugular bulb dehiscence, or paraganglioma; however, the literature contains reports of numerous rare causes, particularly variant anatomic morphologies. We present the case of a novel cause of pulsatile tinnitus in which collateral vascular flow compensated for decreased normal intracranial cerebral arterial supply and might have caused catastrophic consequences if intervened upon after assumptions based on an incomplete evaluation.

Concepts: Medicine, Causality, Myocardial infarction, Artery, Ear, Tinnitus, Metaphysics, Arteriovenous fistula


Deconstructive approaches may be necessary to treat a variety of neurovascular pathologies. Recently, a new device has become available for endovascular arterial occlusion that may have unique applications in neurovascular disease. The Micro Vascular Plug (MVP, Reverse Medical, Irvine, California, USA) has been designed for vessel occlusion through targeted embolization.

Concepts: Medicine, Engineering, Medical school


Adequate dual antiplatelet (AP) therapy is imperative when performing neurovascular stenting procedures. Currently, no consensus for the ideal AP regimen exists. Thus the present study aimed to gain a better understanding of real world practice AP patterns by surveying neurointerventional surgeons.

Concepts: Present, Truth, Earth, United States, Reality, Surveying, Geodesy


The pharmaceutical therapy for acute ischemic stroke has shortcomings in reopening large vessels and dissolving long thrombi, and endovascular treatment has been found to provide added value. The Aperio thrombectomy device showed promising results in an experimental study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the device clinically.

Concepts: Stroke, Transient ischemic attack, Thrombosis, Value added, Embolism


To retrospectively analyze the complications and outcome of the endovascular treatment of ruptured microaneurysms compared with the treatment of ruptured larger aneurysms.

Concepts: Gross pathology, Philosophical analysis