SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of health psychology

54

To examine risk and resilience factors that affect health, lifetime stress exposure histories, dispositional forgiveness levels, and mental and physical health were assessed in 148 young adults. Greater lifetime stress severity and lower levels of forgiveness each uniquely predicted worse mental and physical health. Analyses also revealed a graded Stress × Forgiveness interaction effect, wherein associations between stress and mental health were weaker for persons exhibiting more forgiveness. These data are the first to elucidate the interactive effects of cumulative stress severity and forgiveness on health, and suggest that developing a more forgiving coping style may help minimize stress-related disorders.

Concepts: Effect, Interaction, Affect, Mental disorder, Positive psychology, Personal life, Elasticity, Psychological resilience

33

Extreme sports are traditionally explored from a risk-taking perspective which often assumes that participants do not experience fear. In this article we explore participants' experience of fear associated with participation in extreme sports. An interpretive phenomenological method was used with 15 participants. Four themes emerged: experience of fear, relationship to fear, management of fear, and fear and self-transformation. Participants' experience of extreme sports was revealed in terms of intense fear but this fear was integrated and experienced as a potentially meaningful and constructive event in their lives. The findings have implications for understanding fear as a potentially transformative process.

Concepts: Experience, Knowledge, Perspective, Extreme sport, X Games, Aggressive inline skating

32

Improving Access to Psychological Therapies is a UK government-funded initiative to widen access to the psychological treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. The author has had the opportunity to independently assess 90 Improving Access to Psychological Therapies clients, using a standardised semi-structured interview, the Structured Clinical Diagnostic Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID) and to listen to their account of interaction with the service. The results suggest that only the tip of the iceberg fully recovers from their disorder (9.2%) whether or not they were treated before or after a personal injury claim. There is a pressing need to re-examine the modus operandi of the service.

Concepts: Anxiety, Psychology, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Psychotherapy, The Opportunity, Personal injury, Modus operandi, The Tip

30

The foods we eat have substantial impact on our health, and excessive food intake is associated with numerous long-term health conditions. It is therefore essential to understand the factors influencing this crucial health behavior. Research has identified sleep problems as one such factor; however, little research has examined how sleep problems impact food intake. Using a multisystemic perspective, this article proposes a variety of ways in which sleep problems likely increase food intake and illustrates the need for research to empirically examine these underlying mechanisms. Such research would have important treatment implications for health conditions often treated with dietary interventions.

Concepts: Nutrition, Eating, Food

30

This study aimed to explore experiences of men currently using eating disorder services. Eight men from two eating disorder services were interviewed about their experiences of seeking and receiving treatment. Two superordinate themes emerged from Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis: (1) difficulty seeing self as having an eating disorder; and (2) experiences of treatment: how important is gender? The underlying themes varied in their specificity to men, with some echoing findings from the female eating disorder literature. Difficulty admitting the eating disorder may link with eating disorder psychopathology as well as gender-specific issues. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

Concepts: Male, Nutrition, Female, Gender, Sex, Interpretative phenomenological analysis, Abnormal psychology, Psychiatry

28

We examined the validity of ‘Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change’ six stages in exercise domain. A paper-pencil survey was completed by 457 workers. Self-efficacy tended to increase from Precontemplation to Action, did not change from Action to Maintenance, and then increase from Maintenance to Termination. Pros tended to increase and cons decrease only from Precontemplation to Action. A follow-up survey was completed by 331 workers. More preparers (25.4%) moved to Action compared to precontemplator (3.8%) and contemplators (6.5%). Relapse rates were lower among those in Termination (17.0%) than those in Action (43.8%) and Maintenance (38.1%). These results partially supported the validity.

Concepts: Behavior, Logic, Transtheoretical model

27

Inconsistent results have been reported on the effects of distraction on negative emotions during medical procedures in infants. These differing results may be attributable to the fact that the effects are apparent under a mildly stressful medical procedure. A total of 17 infants, 18 preschoolers, and 15 school-aged children who were hospitalized were administered, monitoring for vital signs, a mildly stressful medical procedure, by a nurse in a uniform with attractive character designs as a distractor. Consistent with the hypothesis, participating infants showed fewer negative behaviors and lower salivary α-amylase levels when distracted. The results support the efficacy of distraction in infants under a mildly stressful medical procedure.

Concepts: Medical imaging, Vital signs, Human behavior, Consistency, Distraction, Medical procedure

27

This study investigated how men and women made sense of multiple goals during fertility treatment. Both members of three heterosexual couples participated in two or three semi-structured interviews over 6 months, producing 14 accounts, which were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The goal of biological parenthood dominates assumptions in infertility research, but its importance varied between participants, who balanced that goal with retaining emotional well-being, avoiding financial difficulties and maintaining their relationship. These themes are discussed in the context of the self-regulation model, which allows fertility treatment experiences to be conceptualised more broadly than do other models.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Philosophy of language, Management, Infertility, Model, Interpretative phenomenological analysis, Fertility medication, Goal

25

Decision fatigue is an applicable concept to healthcare psychology. Due to a lack of conceptual clarity, we present a concept analysis of decision fatigue. A search of the term “decision fatigue” was conducted across seven research databases, which yielded 17 relevant articles. The authors identified three antecedent themes (decisional, self-regulatory, and situational) and three attributional themes (behavioral, cognitive, and physiological) of decision fatigue. However, the extant literature failed to adequately describe consequences of decision fatigue. This concept analysis provides needed conceptual clarity for decision fatigue, a concept possessing relevance to nursing and allied health sciences.

14

Science is not always plain sailing and sometimes the voyage is across an angry sea. A recent clinical trial of treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome (the PACE trial) has whipped up a storm of controversy. Patients claim the lead authors overstated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy and graded exercise therapy by lowering the thresholds they used to determine improvement. In this extraordinary case, patients discovered that the treatments tested had much lower efficacy after an information tribunal ordered the release of data from the PACE trial to a patient who had requested access using a freedom of information request.

Concepts: Psychology, Medicine, Clinical trial, The Canon of Medicine, Effectiveness, Avicenna, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Chronic fatigue syndrome