SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia

28

Interdural epidermoid cysts of the cavernous sinus originate within the lateral dural wall of the cavernous sinus. Few data are available on the diagnosis and treatment of these tumors. In this study, four patients with interdural epidermoid cyst of the cavernous sinus are reported and data from six patients reported in the English literature are summarized. Trigeminal nerve dysfunction, ophthalmoplegia, and headache were the common symptoms and signs. MRI was the primary diagnostic tool. Contrast enhanced MRI showed slight or strong rim enhancement in six of the 10 patients. All patients were treated by surgical resection using frontotemporal or pterional craniotomy via the intradural or interdural approach. Total removal was achieved in three of the four patients, and four of 10 patients in the whole series. Postoperative neurological function improved in all patients. During follow-up, there were three known clinical recurrences in the total group, but no recurrence in the four patients treated at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University. The findings suggest that aggressive surgical management is associated with good results and with low complication and recurrence rates, but radical resection at the risk of impairing the cranial nerves is not recommended.

Concepts: Cranial nerves, Nerve, Mandibular nerve, Oculomotor nerve, Trochlear nerve, Trigeminal nerve, Maxillary nerve, Abducens nerve

28

The long-term maintenance of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt function depends on the correct placement of the catheter tip in the lateral ventricle. The relationship between the location of the ventricular catheter tip and VP shunt function was analyzed in 52 patients. The location of the ventricular catheter tip was classified into one of the following five groups: (i) Group A - superior to the foramen of Monro; (ii) Group B - in the center of the lateral ventricle body; (iii) Group C - in the third ventricle; (iv) Group D - contacting the ventricle wall; and (v) Group E - in the septum pellucidum. VP shunt function was defined as well controlled hydrocephalus when the Evan’s ratio of the ventricular size was < 0.3. The VP shunt functioned well in 14 of 52 patients (26.9%), the shunt valve pressure was incorrectly set in 21 (40.4%), and irreversible shunt malfunction was identified in 17 (32.7%). Among the 14 patients with a well-functioning shunt, 13 were in Groups A or B with an odds ratio (OR) of 17.875 (p<0.05). In the 17 irreversible shunt malfunctions, 13 were identified in Groups C, D, or E with an OR of 0.123 (p<0.05). Long term VP shunt function or failure due to irreversible malfunction is directly influenced by the position of the ventricular catheter tip. Ideal points for positioning the ventricular catheter tip are superior to the foramen of Monro and in the center of the lateral ventricle body. Early shunt revision may be required for patients in whom the catheter tip contacts the ventricle wall or is located in the septum pellucidum.

Concepts: Cerebrospinal fluid, Term, Hydrocephalus, Catheter, Ventricular system, Group B, Fourth ventricle, Cerebral shunt

28

We present a 16-year-old male patient with Marfan’s syndrome who presented with quadriparesis from a Type I Chiari malformation (CM) with basilar invagination and a syrinx. The condition resolved after transoral odontoidectomy and occipitocervical fusion without posterior decompression of the CM. Thus, ventral decompression alone can resolve a cervical syrinx in patients with compression of the foramen magnum.

Concepts: Syndromes, Vertebral artery, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Arnold-Chiari malformation, Syringomyelia

28

Meningiomas of the midline anterior skull base (ASB) typically grow around the optic chiasm. These tumors can displace or adhere to the optic apparatus, resulting in visual abnormalities. For this reason, in most studies of surgically resected meningiomas, only surgical and visual outcomes have been evaluated. However, in this study, we assessed overall clinical outcomes and the effects of different surgical approaches on outcomes. Clinical data for 126 patients who were treated surgically for midline ASB meningiomas between 1994 and 2009 were collected and reviewed retrospectively. The mean follow-up duration was 39months (range: 0.5-146months). Most procedures were performed via a pterional approach and did not require an aggressive skull base approach. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using our own criteria, and potential predictive factors for visual and clinical outcomes were tested statistically. The tumor control rate was 83% (105/126). Immediate postoperative visual status and optic canal involvement were correlated with visual outcome. Of the patients who ultimately had improved visual status, only six were originally categorized as having severe visual impairment (all were only able to count fingers). In terms of clinical outcome, 41 patients were classified as “excellent”, 32 as “good”, 29 as “fair”, and 20 as “poor”. A symptom duration of less than six months, less severe preoperative visual symptoms of the affected eye, and the extent of resection were all correlated with improved clinical outcome. Involvement of the optic canal, adherence of the tumor to the optic nerve, and major arterial encasement by the tumor were associated with poor clinical outcome. We recommend that in patients with unilateral severe visual impairment, the focus should be on improving visual function in the contralateral eye. Preoperative and postoperative evaluation of several variables allows for the prediction of clinical and visual outcomes.

Concepts: Nervous system, Visual system, Ophthalmology, Resection, Visual impairment, Optic nerve, Optic chiasm

27

Central to COVID-19 pathophysiology is an acute respiratory infection primarily manifesting as pneumonia. Two months into the COVID-19 outbreak, however, a retrospective study in China involving more than 200 participants revealed a neurological component to COVID-19 in a subset of patients. The observed symptoms, the cause of which remains unclear, included impaired consciousness, skeletal muscle injury and acute cerebrovascular disease, and appeared more frequently in severe disease. Since then, findings from several studies have hinted at various possible neurological outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Here, we review the historical association between neurological complications and highly pathological coronaviruses including SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. We draw from evidence derived from past coronavirus outbreaks, noting the similarities and differences between SARS and MERS, and the current COVID-19 pandemic. We end by briefly discussing possible mechanisms by which the coronavirus impacts on the human nervous system, as well as neurology-specific considerations that arise from the repercussions of COVID-19.

27

A 57-year-old woman with a history of atypical intracranial meningioma had undergone multiple craniotomies and endoscopic skull base procedures over several years. She presented most recently with nasal discharge consisting of intranasal larvae. Isolated organisms from the nasal cavity and maxillary sinus were identified as blow fly larvae (Calliphoridae family). The patient was treated with transnasal debridement and antibiotic therapy. The organisms were successfully eradicated and she is free from further signs of infection. Intranasal myiasis is an unusual complication of anterior skull base surgery.

Concepts: Bacteria, Skull, Maxillary sinus, Nasal cavity, Fly, Calliphoridae, Maxillary nerve, Myiasis

27

Painful legs moving toes (PLMT) is a rare disorder characterized by an often-severe painful sensation in the legs associated with involuntary movement of the toes. The treatment can be challenging given the poor response to pharmacotherapy. We present a patient with PLMT who obtained substantial benefit in both pain and severity of involuntary movement with botulinum toxin type A injections for more than 3years.

Concepts: Pain, Employee benefit, Botulinum toxin, Microbial toxins, Clostridium botulinum

27

There are reports of an association between benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and hyperuricemia. We sought to determine the risk of vertigo among patients with gout compared with the general population, using a nationwide Taiwanese population-based claims database. Our study cohort consisted of patients with a diagnosis of gout disorders in 2004 (N=18773). Four age- and gender-matched controls for every patient in the study cohort were selected using random sampling as the comparison cohort (N=75092). All subjects were followed from the date of cohort entry until they developed vertigo or to the end of 2006. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed to evaluate the 3-year vertigo-free survival rates. Of the total sample, 2563 (incidence, 10.09 per 1000 person-years) had vertigo during the 3-year follow-up period: 570 (incidence, 11.78 per 1000 person-years) from the study cohort and 1993 (incidence, 9.69 per 1000 person-years) from the comparison cohort. The adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of peripheral and central vertigo in patients with gout compared with controls during the 2-3-year follow-up were 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.05-1.29, p=0.003) and 1.08 (95% CI=0.86-1.36, p=0.53), respectively. This is the first population-based study performed to suggest that patients with gout may have an increased risk of peripheral vertigo but not central vertigo. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo may be the reason for the observed association; however, future studies are required to further ascertain the relationship between gout and the various causes of peripheral vertigo.

Concepts: Sample, Cohort study, Sample size, Sampling, Risk, Confidence interval, Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, Roman numerals

27

Epidermoid cysts account for approximately 1% of all intracranial tumors. Hemorrhage into an epidermoid cyst is extremely rare, and has only been reported a few times. To our knowledge, there are no reports of a hemorrhagic epidermoid cyst presenting with a first generalized tonic clonic seizure. We present a 68-year old female with an epidermoid cyst with intracystic hemorrhage who presented with a first time generalized tonic clonic seizure. When complicated with hemorrhage, the diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst is challenging and there is a potential for misdiagnosis.

Concepts: Time, Medical signs, Sebaceous cyst, Epidermoid cyst, Myoclonus, Seizure types

27

A patient with typical Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) has a clinical manifestation of proximal muscle weaknesses, a larger-than-100% incremental change in repetitive nerve stimulation on high-rate stimulation electrophysiological testing, and a paraneoplastic origin from small cell carcinoma of the lung. Here, we present a patient with an atypical myasthenic syndrome with an oculobulbar-predominant muscle involvement, a borderline incremental change in repetitive nerve stimulation at high frequencies, and a paraneoplastic origin from extrapulmonary mixed small cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The purpose of this report is to emphasize the importance of painstaking scrutiny in the examination of a patient with a less-common presentation of LEMS.

Concepts: Lung cancer, Heart, Types of cancer, Carcinoma, Adenocarcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma, Small cell carcinoma, Paraneoplastic syndrome