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Journal: Journal of cardiovascular magnetic resonance : official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance


Intensive endurance exercise may induce a broad spectrum of right ventricular (RV) adaptation/remodelling patterns. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) has also been described in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) of some endurance athletes and its clinical meaning remains controversial. Our aim was to characterize the features of contrast CMR and the observed patterns of the LGE distribution in a cohort of highly trained endurance athletes.


Several studies have correlated elevations in cardiac biomarkers of injury post marathon with transient and reversible right ventricular (RV) systolic dysfunction as assessed by both transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Whether or not permanent myocardial injury occurs due to repeated marathon running in the aging population remains controversial.

Concepts: Running, Cardiac muscle, Circulatory system, Marathon, Muscle, Cardiovascular system, Heart, Echocardiography


Image-guided endovascular interventions have gained increasing popularity in clinical practice, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as an attractive alternative to X-ray fluoroscopy for guiding such interventions. Steering catheters by remote control under MRI guidance offers unique challenges and opportunities.

Concepts: Artificial pacemaker, Angiography, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Radiography, X-ray, Radiology, Medical imaging, Magnetic resonance imaging


BACKGROUND: The presence of myocardial fibrosis is associated with worse clinical outcomes in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) sequences can detect regional, but not diffuse myocardial fibrosis. Post-contrast T1 mapping is an emerging CMR technique that may enable the non-invasive evaluation of diffuse myocardial fibrosis in HCM. The purpose of this study was to non-invasively detect and quantify diffuse myocardial fibrosis in HCM with CMR and examine its relationship to diastolic performance. METHODS: We performed CMR on 76 patients - 51 with asymmetric septal hypertrophy due to HCM and 25 healthy controls. Left ventricular (LV) morphology, function and distribution of regional myocardial fibrosis were evaluated with cine imaging and LGE. A CMR T1 mapping sequence determined the post-contrast myocardial T1 time as an index of diffuse myocardial fibrosis. Diastolic function was assessed by transthoracic echocardiography. RESULTS: Regional myocardial fibrosis was observed in 84% of the HCM group. Post-contrast myocardial T1 time was significantly shorter in patients with HCM compared to controls, consistent with diffuse myocardial fibrosis (498 +/- 80 ms vs. 561 +/- 47 ms, p < 0.001). In HCM patients, post-contrast myocardial T1 time correlated with mean E/e' (r = -0.48, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HCM have shorter post-contrast myocardial T1 times, consistent with diffuse myocardial fibrosis, which correlate with estimated LV filling pressure, suggesting a mechanistic link between diffuse myocardial fibrosis and abnormal diastolic function in HCM.

Concepts: Hypertrophy, Echocardiography, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Heart, Cardiomyopathy, Diastolic dysfunction, Cardiology, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy


BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the magnetic resonance (MR) conditional pacemaker (PM) system (Evia SR-T and DR-T with Safio S leads) under MR conditions. METHODS: Patients with standard PM indications and Evia PM were eligible for enrollment in this single center prospective non-randomized pilot study. Patients underwent MR of the brain and lower lumbar spine at 1.5 Tesla. Atrial (RA) und ventricular (RV) lead parameters (sensing, pacing threshold [PTH], pacing impedance) were assessed immediately before (baseline follow-up [FU]) and immediately after MRI (1st FU), after 1 month (2nd FU) and 3 months (3rd FU). The effect of MR on serious adverse device effect (SADE) free-rate, on atrial and ventricular sensing (AS/VS; mV) and atrial (RA) and ventricular (RV) pacing thresholds (PTH; V/0.4 ms) were investigated between baseline and 2nd FU. Continuous variables are expressed as mean +/- SD and were compared using paired Student’s t-test. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients were enrolled. One patient had to be excluded because of an enrollment violation. Therefore, data of 30 patients (female 12 [40%], age 73 +/- 12 years, dual chamber PM 15 [50%]) were included in this analysis. No MR related SADE occurred. Lead measurements were not statistically different between the baseline FU and the 2nd FU (AS/VS at baseline 3.2 +/- 2.1/15.0 +/- 6.0, at 2nd FU 3.2 +/- 2.1/14.9 +/- 6.5; p = ns. RA-PTH/RV-PTH at baseline 0.68 +/- 0.18/0.78 +/- 0.22, at 2nd FU 0.71 +/- 0.24/0.78 +/- 0.22; p = ns). The presence of the permanent pacemakers led to MR imaging artifacts on diffusion weighted sequences of the brain, but did not affect other sequences (e.g. FLAIR and T2 weighted spin-echo images). CONCLUSION: The use of the MR conditional Evia PM in a MR environment under predefined conditions is feasible. No MR related SADEs nor clinically relevant changes in device functions occurred.

Concepts: Nuclear magnetic resonance, Transcutaneous pacing, Student's t-test, Statistics, Brain, Lumbar vertebrae, Magnetic resonance imaging, Artificial pacemaker


This document is an update to the 2013 publication of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) Board of Trustees Task Force on Standardized Protocols. Concurrent with this publication, 3 additional task forces will publish documents that should be referred to in conjunction with the present document. The first is a document on the Clinical Indications for CMR, an update of the 2004 document. The second task force will be updating the document on Reporting published by that SCMR Task Force in 2010. The 3rd task force will be updating the 2013 document on Post-Processing. All protocols relative to congenital heart disease are covered in a separate document.The section on general principles and techniques has been expanded as more of the techniques common to CMR have been standardized. A section on imaging in patients with devices has been added as this is increasingly seen in day-to-day clinical practice. The authors hope that this document continues to standardize and simplify the patient-based approach to clinical CMR. It will be updated at regular intervals as the field of CMR advances.


BACKGROUND: The late cardiotoxic effects of anthracycline chemotherapy influence morbidity and mortality in the growing population of childhood cancer survivors. Even with lower anthracycline doses, evidence of adverse cardiac remodeling and reduced exercise capacity exist. We aim to examine the relationship between cardiac structure, function and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) tissue characteristics with chemotherapy dose and exercise capacity in childhood cancer survivors. METHODS: Thirty patients (15 +/- 3 years), at least 2 years following anthracycline treatment, underwent CMR, echocardiography, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (peak VO2). CMR measured ventricular function, mass, T1 and T2 values, and myocardial extracellular volume fraction, ECV, a measure of diffuse fibrosis based on changes in myocardial T1 values pre- and post-gadolinium. Cardiac function was also assessed with conventional and speckle tracking echocardiography. RESULTS: Patients had normal LVEF (59 +/- 7%) but peak VO2 was 17% lower than age-predicted normal values and were correlated with anthracycline dose (r = -0.49). Increased ECV correlated with decreased mass/volume ratio (r = -0.64), decreased LV wall thickness/height ratio (r = -0.72), lower peak VO2(r = -0.52), and higher cumulative dose (r = 0.40). Echocardiographic measures of systolic and diastolic function were reduced compared to normal values (p < 0.01), but had no relation to ECV, peak VO2 or cumulative dose. CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial T1 and ECV were found to be early tissue markers of ventricular remodeling that may represent diffuse fibrosis in children with normal ejection fraction post anthracycline therapy, and are related to cumulative dose, exercise capacity and myocardial wall thinning.

Concepts: Blood, Heart, Echocardiography, Chemotherapy, Blood pressure, Anthracycline, Cardiology, Ejection fraction


Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a poorly characterized condition. We aimed to phenotype patients with HFpEF using multiparametric stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and to assess the relationship to clinical outcomes.

Concepts: Avicenna, The Canon of Medicine, Myocardial infarction, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Heart failure, Cardiology, Magnetic resonance imaging, Ejection fraction


Non-invasive cardiac imaging allows detection of cardiac amyloidosis (CA) in patients with aortic stenosis (AS). Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of clinically suspected CA in patients with moderate and severe AS referred for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in age and gender categories, and assess associations between AS-CA and all-cause mortality.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Prevalence, Medical terms, Heart, Medical statistics


Machine learning (ML) is making a dramatic impact on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in many ways. This review seeks to highlight the major areas in CMR where ML, and deep learning in particular, can assist clinicians and engineers in improving imaging efficiency, quality, image analysis and interpretation, as well as patient evaluation. We discuss recent developments in the field of ML relevant to CMR in the areas of image acquisition & reconstruction, image analysis, diagnostic evaluation and derivation of prognostic information. To date, the main impact of ML in CMR has been to significantly reduce the time required for image segmentation and analysis. Accurate and reproducible fully automated quantification of left and right ventricular mass and volume is now available in commercial products. Active research areas include reduction of image acquisition and reconstruction time, improving spatial and temporal resolution, and analysis of perfusion and myocardial mapping. Although large cohort studies are providing valuable data sets for ML training, care must be taken in extending applications to specific patient groups. Since ML algorithms can fail in unpredictable ways, it is important to mitigate this by open source publication of computational processes and datasets. Furthermore, controlled trials are needed to evaluate methods across multiple centers and patient groups.