SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Italian journal of pediatrics

217

The role of breakfast as an essential part of an healthy diet has been only recently promoted even if breakfast practices were known since the Middle Age. The growing scientific evidences on this topic are extremely sector-based nevertheless breakfast could be regarded from different point of views and from different expertises. This approach, that take into account history, sociology, anthropology, medicine, psychology and pedagogy, is useful to better understand the value of this meal in our culture. The aim of this paper was to analyse breakfast-related issues based on a multidisciplinary approach with input by specialists from different fields of learning.

Concepts: Psychology, Nutrition, Middle Ages, Sociology, Culture, Philosophy, Anthropology, Social sciences

171

Perinatal asphyxia leading to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a common problem causing multi organ dysfunction including myocardial involvement which can affect the outcome.

Concepts: Asphyxia

162

Pediculosis capitis is a worldwide health problem. One of the most important factor in effective head lice eradication is to ensure that infestation is adequately recognized and treated. Our survey investigated the knowledge and practice among primary care Italian pediatricians regarding to the prevention and treatment of head lice.

Concepts: Health care, Public health, Head louse, Pediculosis, Body louse, Louse, Treatment of human head lice, Head-louse infestation

161

Although the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy recognize the role of nutrition, there is few literature on the practical issues concerning the nutritional management of children with food allergies.This Consensus Position Statement focuses on the nutritional management and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy.It provides practical advices for the management of children on exclusion diet and it represents an evidence-based consensus on nutritional intervention and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy.Children with food allergies have poor growth compared to non-affected subjects directly proportional to the quantity of foods excluded and the duration of the diet. Nutritional intervention, if properly planned and properly monitored, has proven to be an effective mean to substantiate a recovery in growth.Nutritional intervention depends on the subject’s nutritional status at the time of the diagnosis.The assessment of the nutritional status of children with food allergies should follow a diagnostic pathway that involves a series of successive steps, beginning from the collection of a detailed diet-history.It is essential that children following an exclusion diet are followed up regularly.The periodic re-evaluation of the child is needed to assess the nutritional needs, changing with the age, and the compliance to the diet.The follow- up plan should be established on the basis of the age of the child and following the growth pattern.

Concepts: Immune system, Nutrition, Asthma, Allergy, Food, Food allergy, Eczema, Oral allergy syndrome

143

Ventricular septal defects (VSD) are the most common subtype of congenital heart defects (CHD) and are estimated to account for 20 to 30% of all cases of CHD. The etiology of isolated VSD remains poorly understood. Eight core aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) (EPRS, MARS, QARS, RARS, IARS, LARS, KARS, and DARS) combine with three nonenzymatic components to form a complex known as the multisynthetase complex (MSC). Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in EPRS have been reported to be associated with risks of CHD in Chinese populations.

Concepts: DNA, China, Han Chinese, People's Republic of China, Overseas Chinese, Ventricular septal defect, Qing Dynasty, World population

45

High rates of vaccination coverage are important in preventing infectious diseases. Enforcing mandatory vaccinations is one of the strategies that some Countries adopted to protect the community when vaccination coverage is not satisfactory. In Italy, in 2017 vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliovirus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, measles, mumps, rubella and varicella became compulsory in childhood. In order to contrast vaccination policies, anti-vaccination campaigns contribute to the spread of fake news. Among them, there is the false information that Italy is the only one country with mandatory vaccination policy. Aim of our study is confronting vaccination policies in children under 18 months against among different European countries for the following vaccines: diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliovirus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, measles, mumps, rubella and varicella.

27

Young children are too often exposed to mobile devices (MD) and most of them had their own device. The adverse effects of a early and prolonged exposure to digital technology on pre-school children has been described by several studies. Aim of the study is to analyze the consequences of MD exposure in pre-school children.

19

The term weaning describes the time period in which a progressive reduction of breastfeeding or the feeding of infant-formula takes place while the infant is gradually introduced to solid foods. It is a crucial time in an infant’s life as not only does it involve with a great deal of rapid change for the child, but it is also associated with the development of food preferences, eating behaviours and body weight in childhood and also in adolescence and adulthood.Therefore, how a child is weaned may have an influence later, on the individual’s entire life. Babies are traditionally first introduced to solid foods using spoon-feeding, in most countries.Beside to traditional approach, an alternative method, promoting infant self-feeding from six months of age, called baby-led weaning or “auto-weaning”, has grown in popularity. This approach causes concern to healthy professionals and parents themselves as data from observational studies pointed out to a potential risk of iron and energy inadequacy as well as choking risk. Aim of this systematic review was to critically examine the current evidence about baby-led weaning approach and to explore the need for future research.A systematic search was conducted in Cochrane library databases and DARE (Database of Abstract of Reviews of Effects), EMBASE and MEDLINE in the period 2000-2018 (up to March 1st) to address some key questions on baby-led weaning. Prisma guidelines for systematic reviews has been followed.After the inclusion/exclusion process, we included for analysis of evidence 12 articles, 10 observational cross-sectional studies and 2 randomized controlled trials. Pooling of results from very different outcomes in the studies included was not possible. Both randomized trials have potential bias; therefore, the quality of the evidence is low.There are still major unresolved issues about baby-led weaning that require answers from research and that should be considered when advices are requested from health professionals by parents willing to approach this method.

19

Conduct Disorder (CD) is a psychiatric diagnosis characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behaviour in which the basic rights of others and major age-appropriate social norms or rules are violated. Callous Unemotional (CU) traits are a meaningful specifier in subtyping CD for more severe antisocial and aggressive behaviours in adult psychopathology; they represent the affective dimension of adult psychopathy, but they can be also detected in childhood and adolescence. The CU traits include lack of empathy, sense of guilt and shallow emotion, and their characterization in youth can improve our diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic abilities. A strong genetic liability, in interaction with parenting and relevant environmental factors, can lead to elevated levels of CU traits in children. We pointed out that CU traits can be detected in early childhood, may remain stable along the adolescence, but a decrease following intensive and specialized treatment is possible. We here provide a narrative review of the available evidences on CU traits in three main domains: aetiology (encompassing genetic liability and environmental risk factors), presentation (early signs and longitudinal trajectories) and treatments.

Concepts: Psychology, Childhood, Mental disorder, Psychiatry, Empathy, Antisocial personality disorder, Conduct disorder, Psychopathy

19

Hypertrichosis is defined as an excessive growth in body hair beyond the normal variation compared with individuals of the same age, race and sex and affecting areas not predominantly androgen-dependent. The term hirsutism is usually referred to patients, mainly women, who show excessive hair growth with male pattern distribution.Hypertrichosis is classified according to age of onset (congenital or acquired), extent of distribution (generalized or circumscribed), site involved, and to whether the disorder is isolated or associated with other anomalies. Congenital hypertrichosis is rare and may be an isolated condition of the skin or a component feature of other disorders. Acquired hypertrichosis is more frequent and is secondary to a variety of causes including drug side effects, metabolic and endocrine disorders, cutaneous auto-inflammatory or infectious diseases, malnutrition and anorexia nervosa, and ovarian and adrenal neoplasms. In most cases, hypertrichosis is not an isolated symptom but is associated with other clinical signs including intellective delay, epilepsy or complex body malformations.A review of congenital generalized hypertrichosis is reported with particular attention given to the disorders where excessive diffuse body hair is a sign indicating the presence of complex malformation syndromes. The clinical course of a patient, previously described, with a 20-year follow-up is reported.

Concepts: Hirsutism, Conditions of the skin appendages