SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: International journal of surgery (London, England)

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BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Caustic esophageal injury is a rare clinical condition in adult patients. Although dilatation, or the conservative approach, is the primary treatment method, some patients require surgical intervention. Because of the rarity of such cases, standard surgical treatment algorithms cannot be utilized. In this article, we present our surgical experience and discuss the challenges in the surgical management of corrosive injury of the esophagus in adults. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of 28 patients who suffered from a corrosive esophageal injury between 1996 and 2011. Patient demographics, history of corrosive material ingestion, preoperative findings, treatment strategy, operative technique, postoperative course, requirements for further treatment, and the current status of the patients were investigated. RESULTS: All patients underwent a transhiatal esophagectomy in addition to a gastric pull-up with a cervical esophagogastrostomy. The mean follow-up time was 62 (12-140) months. One patient developed a deep surgical infection; anastomotic stenosis was noted and treated with dilatation in 13 patients. The mean time period between the operation and the first dilatation for 12 patients was 81 (45-161) days. The mean dilatation count for the patients was 3 (1-10). CONCLUSION: Although it comes with high anastomotic stenosis rates, transhiatal esophagectomy and gastric pull-up with cervical anastomosis is a safe procedure, which can be performed for the treatment of corrosive esophageal stricture.

Concepts: Time, Hospital, Surgery, Digestive system, Esophagus, Anastomosis, Esophageal cancer, Esophageal stricture

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An overview of intra-abdominal sepsis is necessary at this time with new experimental studies, scoring systems and audits on management outcomes. The understanding of the pathophysiology of the peritoneum in the manifestation of surgical sepsis and the knowledge of the source of pathogenic organisms which reach the peritoneal cavity are crucial in the prevention of intra-abdominal infection. Inter-individual variation in the pattern of mediator release and of end-organ responsiveness may play a significant role in determining the initial physiological response to major sepsis and this in turn may be a key determinant of outcome. The ability to identify the presence of peritoneal inflammation probably has the greatest influence on the final surgical decision. The prevention of the progression of sepsis is by early goal-directed therapy and source control. Recent advances in interventional techniques for peritonitis have significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality of physiologically severe complicated abdominal infection. In the critically ill patients there is some evidence that the prevention of gut mucosal acidosis improves outcome. The aim of this review is to ascertain why intra-abdominal sepsis remains a major clinical challenge and how a better understanding of the pathophysiology may enable its prevention and better management. METHOD: Electronic searches of the medline (PubMed) database, Cochrane library, and science citation index were performed to identify original published studies on intra-abdominal sepsis and the current management. Relevant articles were searched from relevant chapters in specialized texts and all included.

Concepts: Inflammation, Bacteria, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Peritoneum, Abdomen, Pathogenic bacteria, Science Citation Index

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Bilateral inguinal hernias form a part of the complex spectrum of weakness in the region of the myopectineal orifice. Laparoscopic surgery is one of the standard approaches for bilateral hernias. We describe the results of a randomized trial that was undertaken to compare and evaluate TAPP and TEP repair for bilateral inguinal hernias.

Concepts: Comparison, Randomized controlled trial, Surgery, Inguinal hernia, Hernia, Laparoscopic surgery, Laparoscopy

24

An unprecedented outbreak of pneumonia of unknown aetiology in Wuhan City, Hubei province in China emerged in December of 2019. A novel coronavirus was identified as the causative agent and was subsequently termed COVID-19 by the World Health Organization (WHO). Considered a relative of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), COVID-19 is a betacoronavirus that affects the lower respiratory tract and manifests as pneumonia in humans. Despite rigorous global containment and quarantine efforts, the incidence of COVID-19 continues to rise, with 50,580 laboratory-confirmed cases and 1,526 deaths worldwide. In response to this global outbreak, we summarise the current state of knowledge surrounding COVID-19.

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Enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) poses a supreme challenge for the surgeons associated with abdominal sepsis, fluid electrolyte imbalance and undernutrition. Individual prognostic stratification is pivotal in the clinical management. Presepsin is a novel biomarker showing diagnostic and prognostic value in sepsis. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of presepsin in ECF.

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Gallbladder polyps (GBPs) are a common incidental finding on ultrasound (US) examination. The malignant potential of GBPs is debated, and there is limited guidance on surveillance. This systematic review sought to assess the natural history of ultrasonographically diagnosed GBPs and their malignant potential.

Concepts: Oncology, Medical terms, Natural environment, Malignancy, Nature, History of science, Natural science, Natural history

23

Peri-prosthetic joint infection remains one of the most difficult and challenging complications following hip and knee arthroplasty for both patients and surgeons. Two-stage revision arthroplasty for infection remains the most popular option for the majority of patients and arguably the only option for some. The use antibiotic spacers and in particular articulating spacers has improved the quality of life for patients between stages. The spacers provides local delivery of high concentration antibiotics and provides many benefits to the soft tissues including maintaining soft tissue tension and range of movement. This benefit to the soft tissues also translates into reducing the difficulty and time spent doing the exposure during the second stage procedure. It is generally accepted that peri-prosthetic joint infection should be dealt with my specialist centers who deal with high volumes of patients with this diagnosis in a multidisciplinary approach.

Concepts: Bacteria, Tissues, Joint, Soft tissue

22

Facial palsy leads to functional and aesthetic deficits, which impair the quality of life of affected patients. General health-related and disease-specific questionnaires are available for quality of life assessment. In this study, observer-based analysis of facial function (Sunnybrook Facial Grading Scale) was compared patient-based to facial palsy-specific gradings (Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale and Facial Disability Index), and general health-related quality of life questionnaires (SF-36). We hypothesized that only facial palsy-specific instruments capture functional and social impairments of affected patients.

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The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in over 1.4 million confirmed cases and over 83,000 deaths globally. It has also sparked fears of an impending economic crisis and recession. Social distancing, self-isolation and travel restrictions forced a decrease in the workforce across all economic sectors and caused many jobs to be lost. Schools have closed down, and the need of commodities and manufactured products has decreased. In contrast, the need for medical supplies has significantly increased. The food sector has also seen a great demand due to panic-buying and stockpiling of food products. In response to this global outbreak, we summarise the socio-economic effects of COVID-19 on individual aspects of the world economy.

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COVID-19 has now been declared a pandemic. To date, COVID-19 has affected over 944,181 people worldwide, resulting in over 47,312 reported deaths. Numerous preventative strategies and non-pharmaceutical interventions have been employed to mitigate the spread of disease including careful infection control, the isolation of patients, and social distancing. Management is predominantly focused on the provision of supportive care, with oxygen therapy representing the major treatment intervention. Medical therapy involving corticosteroids and antivirals have also been encouraged as part of critical management schemes. However, there is at present no specific antiviral recommended for the treatment of COVID-19, and no vaccine is currently available. Despite the strategic implementation of these measures, the number of new reported cases continues to rise at a profoundly alarming rate. As new findings emerge, there is an urgent need for up-to-date management guidelines. In response to this call, we review what is currently known regarding the management of COVID-19, and offer an evidence-based review of current practice.