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Journal: International journal of impotence research

28

The aim of the study is to investigate whether there is an effect of adult circumcision on ejaculation parameters and to research the relationship between intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT). Adults who underwent voluntary circumcision between September 2010 and November 2011 were enrolled in this prospective study. The IELT before and 3 months following circumcision was recorded. Also, PEDT was filled out before and 3 months after circumcision. During statistical evaluation, the comparison of situations before and after circumcision was made using IELT averages and PEDT total scores. Furthermore, the correlation between changes in IELT and PEDT has also been evaluated. A total of 30 volunteers (mean age 21.25±0.44) were enrolled in the study. The volunteers' mean and median IELT before were 104.36±66.21 and 88 (26-307) seconds, whereas mean and median IELT after circumcision were 123.56±54.44 and 107.5 (67-300) seconds, respectively. The increase after circumcision was statistically significant (P=0.001). The mean and median PEDT score were 4.26±2.91 and 3 (1-12) before, and 2.63±1.82 and 2 (0-7) after circumcision. Improvement was statistically significant (P<0.0001). No correlation could be found between ejaculation time and PEDT scores. Circumcision during adulthood does not adversely affect ejaculatory function; it may slightly improve. However, it could not be interpreted as a justification for circumcision in men with premature ejaculation (PE).International Journal of Impotence Research advance online publication, 2 January 2014; doi:10.1038/ijir.2013.47.

Concepts: Statistics, Arithmetic mean, Mean, Ejaculation, Penis, Premature ejaculation, Sexual dysfunction, Intravaginal ejaculation latency time

27

This study evaluated the action of pomegranate juice (PJ) and its five principal phenolic constituents on rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM). Isometric tension studies were performed after precontraction with phenylephrine in CCSM from rats. Relaxant responses to PJ and its constituents ellagic acid (EA), chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, cumaric acid and rutin were investigated. PJ and EA caused CCSM relaxations (94.1±3.7 and 51.3±9.9%), while others induced limited relaxant responses. EA response was not inhibited by L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (100 μM) and 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (1 μM). Tetraethylammonium (100 μM) and apamin (10 μM) and nifedipine (10 μM) inhibited EA-induced relaxations at 10(-3) M by 84%, 82% and 78%, respectively. Glibenclamide (10 μM) inhibited EA response (97%, 100 μM). PJ-induced relaxation was not altered by several inhibitors. EA was estimated to be responsible for 13.3% of relaxation caused by PJ. Our study demonstrated that PJ and EA-induced marked relaxations in CCSM. The opening of Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels and the inhibition of Ca(2+)-channels regulate the relaxation by EA, but not PJ. EA has a minor contribution to the marked relaxation obtained by PJ, suggesting the presence of other PJ constituents, which induce nitric oxide-independent corporal relaxation. Further studies are needed to examine the potential of PJ in combination with a PDE5 inhibitor in ED.International Journal of Impotence Research advance online publication, 1 August 2013; doi:10.1038/ijir.2013.33.

Concepts: Enzyme inhibitor, Inhibitor, Xanthine oxidase inhibitor, Caffeic acid, Tannin, Corpus cavernosum penis, Chlorogenic acid, Pomegranate

27

The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the surgical results of combining complex corrective techniques with penile revascularization in patients with Peyronie’s disease having ED and consider the technique as an alternative to penile prosthesis implantation. Between 2008 and 2011 penile revascularization surgery along with penile corrective techniques was performed in nine patients with Peyronie’s disease having ED. A preoperative urological evaluation was performed with penile color doppler ultrasonography, electromyography of the corpus cavernosum and cavernosometry. The degree of penile angulation was >40° in all patients. All the patients were asked to answer a 15-item questionnaire-the ‘International Index of Erectile Function’ (IIEF-15)-and a 5-item version of the IIEF (IIEF-5) preoperatively and during the postoperative follow-up. The operation was deemed an improvement or a failure according to the scores on the IIEF-5. The mean age of the patients was 51.4±4.2 years. The mean follow-up period was 18 months. None of the patients reported complications after surgery. Complete penile straightening was achieved in all patients. However, two (22.2%) patients reported penile shortening but did not express any dissatisfaction in this regard. All patients were satisfied with the final surgical results. The mean IIEF-5 score was 9.8±3.1 before the operation and it was reported to be 22.03±2.4 at the end of the follow-up period (P<0.05). The mean erectile function domain score was 12.6±3.7 preoperatively and 24.09±3.9 at the end of the follow-up period (P<0.05). We achieved statistically significant improvements on the IIEF scores, and with this satisfactory preliminary results we suggest that this combination could be an alternative to penile prosthesis implantation in highly selected patients with Peyronie's disease having ED; however, further studies are needed to validate this conclusion.International Journal of Impotence Research advance online publication, 21 March 2013; doi:10.1038/ijir.2013.10.

Concepts: Medicine, Statistics, Andrology, Prosthetics, Amputation, Erectile dysfunction, Penis, Peyronie's disease

27

Surgery is gold-standard for correction of Peyronie’s curvature. Grafting is preferred in advanced deviations. We present our novel surgical technique and early results of grafting with collagen fleece. Patients with stable Peyronie’s disease (PD) were included. Grafting was performed by a ready-to-use collagen fleece coated with tissue sealant (TachoSil, Nycomed, Konstanz, Germany), following partial plaque excision/incision. Results of correction were documented by artificial erection. In all, n=70 consecutive patients underwent surgery. Mean patient age was 56.4 years (range: 33-72); 88.6% of patients had dorsal deviation, 11.4% lateral or ventral deviation. Grafting after partial plaque excision was performed in 61 patients (87.1%), after plaque incision in 2 (2.9%) patients. In the former patients, mean operative time was 94.2 min (range: 65-165). Totally straightness was achieved in 83.6%. Three patients required surgical drainage because of subcutaneous haematoma formation. After mean early follow-up of 5.2 days (range: 2-15), glans sensation was normal in 56 patients (91.8%). Seven patients (10.0%) underwent Nesbit procedure alone. Grafting by collagen fleece in PD is feasible and promising. Major advantages are decreased operative times and easy application. Moreover, an additional haemostatic effect is provided. However, long-term clinical outcomes are necessary to confirm these encouraging findings.International Journal of Impotence Research advance online publication, 28 February 2013; doi:10.1038/ijir.2013.7.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Standard deviation, Erectile dysfunction, Penis, Peyronie's disease, Excision

24

Penile curvature (PC) is bothersome to the patient. PC is either congenital or acquired. In most of the circulatory system, blood flows in a laminar profile with minimal energy expenditure. When a fluid passes in a curved tube, the laminar profile is disturbed and changed into a turbulent flow. It increases the energy expenditure and reduces the flow. Turbulent flow may have a role in the development of an atherosclerotic plaque and in localizing its site. The aim of this research was to study penile hemodynamics before and after correction of PC. This prospective study included 20 participants, with PC more than 30°. For each participant, preoperative color duplex doppler ultrasonography (CDDU), correction of the curvature using 16 dot plication technique and post-operative CDDU were done. Furhtermore, arterial systolic velocity was estimated distal to the site of curvature/correction every 5 min for 25 min. The degree of curvature ranged from 30° to 90° with a mean of 55±18.98. Comparative study between the preoperative and post-operative data proved a significantly higher postoperative peak systolic velocity distal to the site of correction, whereas CDDU data had insignificant differences. We concluded that correction of PC is associated with improvement of penile arterial blood flow distal to the site of correction.International Journal of Impotence Research advance online publication, 12 January 2017; doi:10.1038/ijir.2016.52.

Concepts: Blood, Myocardial infarction, Heart, Fluid dynamics, Blood vessel, Circulatory system, Artery, Viscosity

24

Mismatch of partners in premature ejaculation (PE) regarding intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) is usually neglected. Here we proposed the concept and evaluated the use of index of IELT (IIELT) as an objective diagnostic tool for PE. Data from 103 self-reporting PE patients and 59 normal controls were collected. The expected IELTs of both the male and female partners were provided by each participating couple in two questionnaires. IIELT=stopwatch IELT/(½ the male’s expected IELT+½ the female’s expected IELT). The stopwatch IELTs were 1.74±1.4 min (PE group) and 14.45±11.0 min (control group), P<0.05. The expected IELTs were 15.65±8.7 min (men) and 14.16±6.9 min (women) in the PE group, and 21.3±16.1 min (men) and 20.04±13.47 min (women) in the control group, P<0.05. The calculated IIELTs were 0.14±0.12 (PE group) and 0.83±0.60 (control group), P<0.05. The best cut-off point was 0.658, the Youden index was 0.652, sensitivity was 0.991, specificity was 0.661, positive predictive probability was 83.46% and negative predictive probability was 97.6%. We concluded that IIELT was an integrated measurement of the couples' sexual equilibrium and demonstrated that it provided a simple and objective screening indicator for diagnosing self-reported PE.International Journal of Impotence Research advance online publication, 11 February 2016; doi:10.1038/ijir.2016.7.

Concepts: Diagnosis, Type I and type II errors, Orgasm, Ejaculation, Penis, Premature ejaculation, Sexual dysfunction, Intravaginal ejaculation latency time

20

As the COVID-19 spread globally, social distancing, self-isolation/quarantine, and national lockdowns have become crucial to control the pandemic. However, these measures may also lead to increases in social isolation, loneliness, and stress, which can alter the consumption of pornography habits. The aim of the study was thus to explore the interest pattern in pornography and coronavirus-themed pornography during the COVID-19 outbreak. Google Trends® was employed to determine the most popular porn websites (Porn, XNXX, PornHub, xVideos, and xHamster), and coronavirus-themed pornography worldwide and in six nations with different COVID-19 outbreak and self-isolation recommendations. We analyzed every search trend on Google® from January 9, 2020 to May 25, 2020 using “joint point regression analysis”. Comparisons of week relative search volume (WRSV) and temporal patterns were analyzed to assess the change of interest in search terms during nations lockdowns. Paired t-test was used to compare WRSV values among the porn websites during the national lockdowns and the equivalent timespan of the weeks in the previous 4 years. The research trend of almost every keyword increased with significant inflection points for those nations with a straight “stay at home orders” (China, Italy, Spain, and France). “PornHub” and “Porn” showed the highest increase of interest worldwide with an average weekend percentage change (AWPC) of 4.9 and 3.8, respectively. The mean WRSV for keywords in USA and Sweden did not show a similar increase as the other nations. The WRSV percentage change with the historical data had a peak during the straight nations' lockdowns (p < 0.01). All the nations had a significant increase in WRSV coronavirus-themed pornography for each keyword (p < 0.01) with an AWPC, ranging worldwide between 18.5 and 61.8 (p < 0.01), after the beginning of self-quarantine. As strengths this study uses a big data technology to collect worldwide trend of interest, however, data are anonymous and do not allow analysis of subpopulation groups. In conclusion, we demonstrated an increased interest in pornography and coronavirus-themed pornography after the outbreak of COVID-19 in nations with a straight "stay at home orders".

10

The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the sexual position and severity of penile fracture (PF). We studied 90 patients with PF. The mechanism of injury and the sexual position was assessed. We divided our sample by the etiology of the fracture in six groups: (a) masturbation or penile manipulation; (b) ‘man-on-top’ position; © ‘doggy style’ position; (d) ‘woman-on-top’ position; (d) blunt trauma; and (e) ‘rolling over’ fracture. We used the χ(2)-test for contingency analysis of the populations under study (P<0.05). The patient's age ranged from 18 to 66 years (mean 39 years). Investigation of the injury mechanism identified sexual trauma as the main etiological factor, involved in 69 cases (76.5%). The sexual position at the time of injury varied, with 23 cases (25.5%) occurring in the 'man-on-top', 37cases (41%) in the 'doggy style' and 9 cases (10%) in the 'woman-on-top'. We do not observe differences between the severity of the PF between the 'doggy style' and 'man-on-top' (P=0.9595), but the 'doggy style' had more severity of PF when compared with 'woman-on-top' (P=0.0396) and penile manipulation (P=0.0026). The 'man-on-top' and 'doggy style' positions showed more associations with bilateral fractures of the corpus cavernosum and urethral lesions.International Journal of Impotence Research advance online publication, 29 June 2017; doi:10.1038/ijir.2017.24.

Concepts: Sexual intercourse, Fracture, Patient, Andrology, Orgasm, Penis, Etiology, Penile fracture

9

The objective of this study was to examine the association between sexual activities, problems and satisfaction, and ED and PDE5 inhibitor (PDE5i) use. A nationally representative sample of men (n=2612) aged 51-87 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing completed an in-depth Sexual Relationships and Activities Questionnaire. Associations between ED and/or PDE5i use and sexual outcomes were explored using logistic regression models adjusted for age, health and lifestyle factors. PDE5i use in the preceding 3 months was reported by a total of 191 (7%) men, whereas 542 (21%) reported ED but no PDE5i use (untreated ED). Compared with men without ED, PDE5i users were more likely to be sexually active and report more frequent sexual intercourse. Men with untreated ED reported the lowest frequency of sexual activities. Compared with men without ED, both PDE5i users and those with untreated ED were more likely to report being concerned about their level of sexual desire, frequency of sexual activities, erectile function, waking erections and orgasmic experience. PDE5i users were also more concerned about and dissatisfied with their overall sex life than men without ED. This population-based study shows that while PDE5i use is associated with improved sexual functioning, this is not equally reflected in decreased levels of concern and dissatisfaction with their overall sexual health. Clinicians should be aware of this disparity between functional gains and continuing sexual concerns and dissatisfaction, and, where appropriate, offer psychosexual counselling as an adjunct to PDE5i medication.International Journal of Impotence Research advance online publication, 26 March 2015; doi:10.1038/ijir.2015.4.

Concepts: Sexual intercourse, Human sexual behavior, Human sexuality, Erectile dysfunction, Orgasm, Erection, Sexual arousal, Sexual dysfunction

4

It is well established that resident’s exposure and training are of primary importance and positively correlated with patient and health quality outcomes. We aimed to compare and contrast urology residents' self-reported perspectives and attitudes toward exposure and education of andrology and male infertility during residency in both the United States and Europe. We performed a cross-sectional design study using a survey that was distributed to a representative sample of American and European urology residents. The survey included questions regarding demographics, and the residents' perception and description of their training in this specific subspecialty. Response data were analyzed using Chi-square tests. Sixty-five percent of European and thirty-five percent American urology residents reported feeling uncomfortable in a new consultation evaluating an infertile patient and interpreting semen analyses. Surprisingly, more than half of responders replied that they would not go to their own training institutions seeking for male fertility care (78% US and 58% Europeans). In the comparative analysis, although no differences were observed in the very low number (18%) of hospitals that offer formal microsurgical training for urology residents between the US and Europe, more US institutions were reported to have an operating microscope for urology (68% vs. 41%), and more US residents replied reported participating in at least one urologic surgery using the microscope (65% vs. 34%). In conclusion, both American and European residents shared the same frustration regarding their education and exposure to andrology and male infertility during residency training. Collaborative efforts between stakeholders are needed to establish a clear and focused curriculum and training objectives to eliminate this educational gap.