SciCombinator

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Journal: International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

163

Prediction models for exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are scarce. Our aim was to develop and validate a new model to predict exacerbations in patients with COPD.

Concepts: Asthma, Pneumonia, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

162

Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) present with a variety of symptoms that significantly impair health-related quality of life. Despite this, COPD treatment and its management are mainly based on lung function assessments. There is increasing evidence that conventional lung function measures alone do not correlate well with COPD symptoms and their associated impact on patients' everyday lives. Instead, symptoms should be assessed routinely, preferably by using patient-centered questionnaires that provide a more accurate guide to the actual burden of COPD. Numerous questionnaires have been developed in an attempt to find a simple and reliable tool to use in everyday clinical practice. In this paper, we review three such patient-reported questionnaires recommended by the latest Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines, ie, the modified Medical Research Council questionnaire, the clinical COPD questionnaire, and the COPD Assessment Test, as well as other symptom-specific questionnaires that are currently being developed.

Concepts: Medicine, Pulmonology, Asthma, Lung, Pneumonia, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Emphysema, Obstructive lung disease

141

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are used to help smoking cessation. However, these devices contain harmful chemicals, and there are safety concerns. We have investigated the effects of e-cigs on the inflammatory response and viability of COPD bronchial epithelial cells (BECs).

Concepts: Smoking, Tobacco, Tobacco smoking, Cigarette, Nicotine, Cigar, Electronic cigarette, Cigarettes

135

An extrafine formulation of the long-acting muscarinic antagonist, glycopyrronium bromide (GB), has been developed for delivery via the NEXThaler dry powder inhaler (DPI). This study assessed the bronchodilator efficacy and safety of different doses of this formulation in patients with COPD to identify the optimal dose for further development.

131

Patients with COPD often have multiple comorbidities requiring use of multiple medications, and adherence rates for maintenance COPD (mCOPD) medications are already known to be suboptimal. Presence of comorbidities in COPD patients, and use of medications used to treat those comorbidities (non-COPD medications), may have an adverse impact on adherence to mCOPD medications.

Concepts: Asthma

30

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive disease and is treated with inhaled medication to optimize the patient’s lung health through decreasing their symptoms, especially breathlessness. Halotherapy is the inhalation of micronized dry salt within a chamber that mimics a salt cave environment. Recent media reports suggest that this therapy may help with the symptoms of COPD.

Concepts: Medicine, Pulmonology, Asthma, Pneumonia, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Emphysema, Pulmonary hypertension, Air pollution

21

To identify practices that do not add value, cause harm, or subject patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to a level of risk that outweighs possible benefits (overuse).

Concepts: Asthma, Pneumonia, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

21

COPD places a huge clinical and economic burden on the US health care system, with acute exacerbations representing a key driver of direct medical costs. Current treatments, although effective in reducing symptoms and limiting exacerbations, do not adequately target the underlying disease processes that drive exacerbation development. The Aerobika* oscillating positive expiratory pressure (OPEP) device has been shown in a real-world effectiveness study to lower the frequency of moderate-to-severe exacerbations during a 30-day post-exacerbation period. This study sought to determine the impact on exacerbations and costs and to determine the cost-effectiveness of the Aerobika* device.

Concepts: Health care, Health economics, Medicine, Health, Clinical trial, Effectiveness, Economics, Wave

19

COPD is a progressive inflammatory airway disease characterized by increased numbers of alveolar macrophages in the lungs. Bacterial colonization of the lungs is a common feature in COPD and can promote inflammation through continual and repeated Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation. We have studied the response of COPD alveolar macrophages to repetitive stimulation with TLR2 and TLR4 ligands. We investigated the effect of sequential stimulation with different ligands to determine whether this results in tolerance or amplification of the immune response.

Concepts: Immune system, Asthma, Innate immune system, Infection, Toll-like receptor, Receptor, Cell signaling, Dendritic cell

16

Patients with COPD may be prescribed multiple inhalers as part of their treatment regimen, which require different inhalation techniques. Previous literature has shown that the effectiveness of inhaled treatment can be adversely affected by incorrect inhaler technique. Prescribing a range of device types could worsen this problem, leading to poorer outcomes in COPD patients, but the impact is not yet known.

Concepts: Asthma, Effect, Respiratory physiology, Effectiveness, Affect, Respiratory system, Inhalation, Inhaler