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Journal: Indian journal of medical microbiology


Ureaplasma species are the most prevalent genital Mycoplasma isolated from the urogenital tract of both men and women. Ureaplasma has 14 known serotypes and is divided into two biovars- Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum. The organism has several genes coding for surface proteins, the most important being the gene encoding the Multiple Banded Antigen (MBA). The C-terminal domain of MBA is antigenic and elicits a host antibody response. Other virulence factors include phospholipases A and C, IgA protease and urease. Besides genital tract infections and infertility, Ureaplasma is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and diseases in the newborn (chronic lung disease and retinopathy of prematurity). Infection produces cytokines in the amniotic fluid which initiates preterm labour. They have also been reported from renal stone and suppurative arthritis. Genital infections have also been reported with an increasing frequency in HIV-infected patients. Ureaplasma may be a candidate ‘co factor’ in the pathogenesis of AIDS. Culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are the mainstay of diagnosis. Commercial assays are available with improved turnaround time. Micro broth dilution is routinely used to test antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates. The organisms are tested against azithromycin, josamycin, ofloxacin and doxycycline. Resistance to macrolides, tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones have been reported. The susceptibility pattern also varies among the biovars with biovar 2 maintaining higher sensitivity rates. Prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy is essential to prevent long term complications of Ureaplasma infections. After surveying PubMed literature using the terms ‘Ureaplasma’, ‘Ureaplasma urealyticum’ and ‘Ureaplasma parvum’, relevant literature were selected to provide a concise review on the recent developments.

Concepts: Immune system, DNA, Protein, Infectious disease, Bacteria, Polymerase chain reaction, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma


The rise in super bugs causing Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity despite recent advances in management owing to the looming ‘antibiotic apocalypse’. The aetiology and susceptibility pattern of the VAP isolates varies with patient population, type of intensive care unit (ICU) and is an urgent diagnostic challenge. The present study carried out for a period of one year in a tertiary care hospital, enrolled patients on mechanical ventilation (MV) for ≥48 hrs. Endotracheal aspirates (ETA) from suspected VAP patients were processed by semi quantitative method. Staphylococus aureus, members of Enterobacteriaceae were more common in early onset VAP (EOVAP), while Nonfermenting Gram negative bacilli (NFGNB) were significantly associated with late onset VAP (LOVAP). Most of the isolates were multi drug resistant (MDR) super bugs. With limited treatment options left for this crisis situation like the pre-antibiotic era; it is an alarm for rational antibiotic therapy usage and intensive education programs.

Concepts: Medicine, Pneumonia, Antibiotic resistance, Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Mechanical ventilation, Tertiary referral hospital, Gram-negative bacteria, Ventilator-associated pneumonia


We present a report of a 37-year-old female with lung abscess due to Acremonium species that responded to oral itraconazole. There was a marked clinical as well as radiological improvement in patient. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of lung abscess due to Acremonium species which was treated by oral itraconazole. This cost-effective treatment modality proved to be significant in improving symptoms as well as morbidity in this patient.

Concepts: Greatest hits albums, Logic


Bacterial translocation is the invasion of indigenous intestinal bacteria through the gut mucosa to normally sterile tissues and the internal organs. Sometimes instead of bacteria, inflammatory compounds are responsible for clinical symptoms as in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). The difference between sepsis and SIRS is that pathogenic bacteria are isolated from patients with sepsis but not with those of SIRS. Bacterial translocation occurs more frequently in patients with intestinal obstruction and in immunocompromised patients and is the cause of subsequent sepsis. Factors that can trigger bacterial translocation from the gut are host immune deficiencies and immunosuppression, disturbances in normal ecological balance of gut, mucosal barrier permeability, obstructive jaundice, stress, etc. Bacterial translocation occurs through the transcellular and the paracellular pathways and can be measured both directly by culture of mesenteric lymph nodes and indirectly by using labeled bacteria, peripheral blood culture, detection of microbial DNA or endotoxin and urinary excretion of non-metabolisable sugars. Bacterial translocation may be a normal phenomenon occurring on frequent basis in healthy individuals without any deleterious consequences. But when the immune system is challenged extensively, it breaks down and results in septic complications at different sites away from the main focus. The factors released from the gut and carried in the mesenteric lymphatics but not in the portal blood are enough to cause multi-organ failure. Thus, bacterial translocation may be a promoter of sepsis but not the initiator. This paper reviews literature on the translocation of gut flora and its role in causing sepsis.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Bacteria, Gut flora, Blood, Systemic inflammatory response syndrome, Pathogen, Sepsis


Purpose: To evaluate multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (MPCR) utilising multiple targets (IS6110, Protein b [Pab] and MPB64 genes) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Direct Test (MTD) negative but culture positive cases and comparison of MPCR with Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for diagnosis of tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: MPCR was carried out on 28 culture positive sputum samples. Out of 28 culture positive samples, 17 were originally reported, as MTD test negative and 11 were MTD test positive, respectively. The results of MPCR were compared with RT-PCR. To check the specificity of the tests, MPCR and RT-PCR were also evaluated with 16 non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) isolates. Results: Out of 28 culture positive sputum samples, MPCR was positive in all 28/28 samples, whereas RT-PCR was positive in 27/28 samples and MTD test was originally tested positive in six sputum samples and on repeating MTD testing, five more sputum samples were positive and thus total number of MTD positive were 11/28 sputum samples, respectively. All the tests were negative on evaluation with all the 16 NTMs, thus giving specificity of 100% to all the tests; sensitivity of MPCR, RT-PCR and MTD tests were 100%, 96.42% and 39.28%, respectively, in these specifically selected samples. Conclusions: MPCR may be an important tool in the rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis especially in disease endemic, resource limited countries.

Concepts: DNA, Infectious disease, Polymerase chain reaction, Molecular biology, Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis


Isolation of free-living amoebae (FLA) is reported sparsely from water taps, ventilators, air conditioners, haemodialysis units and dental irrigation systems of hospitals worldwide. Their prevalence in hospital environment especially in wards having immunocompromised patients may pose a risk to this group of susceptible population as they may cause disease themselves or may carry pathogens inside them. No study from India has performed such surveillance.

Concepts: Disease, Patient, Hospital, Water, Water pollution, Aquifer, Tertiary referral hospital, Irrigation


Cyclospora cayetanensis is an intestinal coccidian protozoan that has emerged as an important cause of both epidemic and endemic protracted diarrhea worldwide. Though humans appear to be the only natural hosts; the role of animals as natural reservoir is uncertain but of increasing concern. The present study aimed to study the prevalence of coccidian in different groups such as immunocompromised, clinically apparent immunocompetent and healthy individuals. Also, the study isolates were assessed for heterogeneity among the sequences.

Concepts: Present, Epidemiology, Apicomplexa, Clinical death, Natural reservoir, Characterisation, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cyclospora


Intestinal microsporidiosis, which occurs in immunocompromised states such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, has rarely been studied in patients with renal transplantation (RT) on immunosuppressive therapy.

Concepts: HIV, AIDS, Immune system, Kidney, Opportunistic infection, Organ transplant, Immunosuppressive drug, Immunodeficiency


To describe a newly discovered, previously unreported endemic focus of fasciolopsiasis in the Phulwaria village, under tehsil Sugauli, East Champaran, Bihar.

Concepts: Infectious disease, New York City, Focus, Bihar, History of Bihar