Journal: Historia, ciencias, saude--Manguinhos
The article analyzes changes that have occurred in hospitals over the years, with a focus on the dynamics of gender relations as experienced by healthcare workers. We use the notions of configuration and interdependence, taken from Norbert Elias' theory of the civilizing process, along with discussions of gender relations at work; drawing from Michel Foucault, we also reference the disciplinary practices employed down through hospital history. This linkage of discussions on gender issues and on interdependent relations opens up to a reflection on conflicts of interests, power struggles, and the balance of tensions, which in turn makes it possible to problematize gender inequalities with the ultimate aim of achieving an interdisciplinary effort that will promote health care of an integral nature.
The concept of “scientific culture” varies historically, and the examination of its continuities and transformations can help us understand the relationship between the scientific community and society. The views on the role of science in society go far beyond the advancement of a particular form of knowledge and its possible or promising fruit. They involve values, postures and practices to be disseminated and reveal expectations of social and cultural advancement. This article discusses four expressive visions of different moments in Brazilian history. The formulations of four influential authors in scientific and educational policies of the country at different times are presented and analyzed: Miguel Ozorio de Almeida, Anísio Teixeira, Maurício Rocha e Silva and Carlos Vogt.
The definition of a university hospital presupposes the integration of teaching, research and healthcare. Considering these activities constituent parts of university hospitals' missions, an analysis was made from the administrators' viewpoint of their place in these institutions at their founding and in the present day. Semi-structured interviews were held with the administrators of 13 of the 31 general hospitals run at Brazil’s federal universities. Parallel to this, official information was gathered and analyzed from the 31 university hospitals' websites. Using a content analysis technique, it was found that although most of the university hospitals state that research is one of their missions, alongside teaching and healthcare, in practice teaching and healthcare take precedence.
The article analyzes the arrival and identification of the African mosquito Anopheles gambiae in Brazil in 1930, and the initial reactions of scientists and public health authorities against the epidemics of malaria caused by this species. Although this mosquito was recognized as a dangerous vector of malaria, its presence in Brazil was neglected after initial emergency actions in the city of Natal in 1932; this encouraged it to spread silently, resulting in a major malaria epidemic in 1938. This article examines scientific and political issues which caused the fight against mosquitoes to be pushed into the background until 1937 in cooperative efforts between the Rockefeller Foundation’s International Health Division and the Brazilian authorities.
After the Spanish Civil War, poor hygiene and nutritional deficiencies among a large part of Spain’s population contributed to the rise of epidemic diseases. Exanthematic typhus posed a challenge to the health authorities, especially during the spring of 1941, when the epidemiological cycle of the disease and the lack of infrastructures combined to create a serious health crisis. The Franco regime, aware that this situation posed a threat to its legitimacy, promptly used social exclusion as part of its health policy against the epidemic. This article provides an in-depth analysis of the case of Valencia, a city that was behind Republican lines during the war, and therefore received successive waves of refugees as Franco’s troops advanced.
This paper explores the role of film and medical-health practices and discourses in the building and legitimating strategies of Franco’s fascist regime in Spain. The analysis of five medical-colonial documentary films produced during the 1940s explores the relationship between mass media communication practices and techno-scientific knowledge production, circulation and management processes. These films portray a non-problematic colonial space where social order is articulated through scientific-medical practices and discourses that match the regime’s need to consolidate and legitimize itself while asserting the inclusion-exclusion dynamics involved in the definition of social prototypes through processes of medicalization.
This is a study on the way science and scientists are represented in short films on science and technology featured in Anima Mundi Festival (1993-2013), considering symbolic elements that contribute to the image of science. Amongst 405 films on science and technology, 102 were selected for analysis. Brazilian productions predominated (91), as did films featuring genetics, biotechnology, and astronomy. The narratives mostly address technology development, ethical considerations, and explanations of scientific processes. Scientists appear in 80% of the films - mostly white men, wearing a white coat or uniform, in secret laboratories. Scientists' presence in public spaces - stages, the media, industry - indicates a call for their greater visibility in society.
This article examines the emergence and consolidation of bioethics as a discipline from a sociological perspective. This reconstruction helps us to understand on the one hand what is meant by bioethics and what its practices and areas of inquiry are, and on the other to identify various concepts and expert opinions about what the field of study for bioethics should be, opinions which lead in practice to different applications of the discipline in health sciences. This becomes relevant for epistemological discussions about the discipline and for consolidating a sociology of bioethics in the context of Ibero-America.
This article presents a list of medical remedies based on the use of amphibians in Spanish popular medicine and in the classical world. It provides an overview of bibliography relative to folklore studies, ethnographic work and research on social or medical anthropology. It documents a total of 113 remedies and the use of nine species of amphibians, two from the family of caudates (urodeles) and seven anurans. Most of these remedies are based on the popular “preconception” about the influence of amphibians and healing by transmitting an illness to a living creature. The traditional use of certain threatened species is emphasized, an issue to bear in mind in decision-making in the field of conservation biology and environmental education.
This illustrated article presents the Darcy Vargas Fishing School, a department at the philanthropic institution Abrigo do Cristo Redentor do Rio de Janeiro, and its importance in the context of the Estado Novo period in Brazil. Established on the island of Marambaia in the early 1940s, the school provided technical and professional training for fishermen from the local area and from different parts of the Brazilian coast, contributing to the emergence of “worker/citizens” capable of contributing to the socioeconomic development envisaged by President Vargas for the “National State.”