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Journal: Eye (London, England)


The use of kinetic impact projectiles (KIPs) for crowd-control has increased worldwide. Despite having been created as non-lethal weapons, significant damage to several organs, including the eye, has been reported. In this study, we investigated cases of ocular trauma from KIPs during the civil unrest in Chile. To our knowledge, this is the largest case series recorded in international literature.


PurposeTo evaluate the effects of intravitreal autologous plasmin enzyme (APE) in patients with focal vitreomacular traction (VMT).MethodsAPE was obtained by incubation of patient-derived purified plasminogen with streptokinase, and intravitreally injected 5-12 days later. Twenty-four hours after injection, in case of incomplete VMT release, a pars plana vitrectomy was performed. The hyaloid internal limiting membrane adherence and removal of the posterior hyaloid were intraoperatively evaluated.ResultsThirteen patients were recruited. During preparation of APE, five patients had spontaneous release of VMT. Eight patients received APE injection (2 IU). In five patients, spontaneous resolution of VMT occurred before APE administration. Twenty-four hours after injection, persistence of VMT was detected in all the eight treated patients. Best-corrected visual acuity was 0.51±0.37 LogMAR at baseline, improving to 0.23±0.14 LogMAR at 6 months (P=0.002). Foveal thickness was 464±180 μm at baseline, reducing to 246±59 μm at 6 months (P<0.001). Hyaloid was intraoperatively judged 'partially detached' in seven cases and 'totally detached' in one case. Hyaloid peeling was evaluated 'easy' in six eyes and 'very easy' in two eyes.ConclusionsIn the current study, there was a large percentage of spontaneous resolution of VMT before an APE administration. A single intravitreal APE injection seems insufficient to induce a complete posterior vitreous detachment in these patients.Eye advance online publication, 14 December 2012; doi:10.1038/eye.2012.248.

Concepts: Eye, Visual acuity, Ophthalmology, Vitrectomy, Retinal detachment, Vitreous humour, Epiretinal membrane, Posterior vitreous detachment


Personalized treatment of uveal melanoma involves the tailoring of all aspects of care to the condition, needs, wishes, and fears of the patient, taking account of the individual’s circumstances. When selecting between radiotherapy, surgical resection, and phototherapy, or when deciding how best to combine these different therapeutic modalities, it is necessary to understand the patients utilities, with respect to tumour control, visual conservation, and preservation of the eye, so as to prioritize outcomes accordingly. For example, such considerations would influence the width of the safety margins when administering radiotherapy, according to whether the patient considers it more important to conserve vision or to guarantee tumour control. With ‘suspicious naevi’, the choice between observation, immediate treatment, and biopsy is complicated by the lack of adequate survival data on which to base rational decisions, making it necessary for both patient and doctor to accept uncertainty. Personalized care should involve close relatives, as appropriate. It must also adapt to changes in the patient’s needs over time. Such personalized care demands the ability to respond to such needs and the sensitivity to identify these requirements in the first place. Personalized treatment enhances not only the patient’s satisfaction but also the ‘job satisfaction’ of all members of the multidisciplinary team, improving quality of care.Eye advance online publication, 23 November 2012; doi:10.1038/eye.2012.242.

Concepts: Medicine, Cancer, Patient, Radiation therapy, Therapy, Physician, Melanoma, Uveal melanoma


PurposeTo investigate longitudinal changes in peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP).MethodsWe re-examined 103 RP patients whose RNFL thickness was previously examined and reported. RNFL thickness was measured using Stratus optical coherence tomography and was compared with the previous measurements. The results were also compared with that of previously reported normal subjects. Association between the decrease rate and visual acuity, and visual field was also investigated.ResultsThe mean follow-up period was 56.9 months. After excluding the patients in whom RNFL images were of poor quality, 88 patients were eventually analyzed. The average RNFL thickness decreased from 105.8 to 98.2 μm during the period, with the average rate of decrease being 1.6 μm/year. The decrease in RNFL was more evident in superior and inferior sectors. Cross-sectional linear regression analysis also revealed an age-dependent decrease in RNFL, with the slower rate of decrease being 0.94 μm/year. The decrease in RNFL thickness was significantly faster than that reported in normal subjects. The decrease rate was not associated with visual functions.ConclusionAge-dependent RNFL thinning occurs at a faster rate in RP patients as compared with that in normal subjects. The result supports the notion that pathologic changes involve inner retina as well as outer retina in eyes with RP. Considering the discrepancy in the rate of RNFL thinning estimated from trend analysis and longitudinal measurement, care should be taken when interpreting the result of cross-sectional analysis.Eye advance online publication, 22 March 2013; doi:10.1038/eye.2013.34.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Linear regression, Measurement, Retina, Eye, Retinitis pigmentosa, Optic nerve, Nerve fiber layer


PurposeTo analyze the incidence and clinical course of patients developing progressive ocular inflammation following anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) for presumed ocular tuberculosis (TB).MethodsRetrospective analysis of medical records of patients who received ATT for presumed ocular TB and completed at least 12 months follow-up after initiation of ATT. The diagnosis of presumed ocular TB was based on presence of ocular signs suggestive of TB, evidence of past tubercular infection, and exclusion of mimicking clinical entities. All patients received a combination of ATT and corticosteroid therapy. Primary outcome measure was progression (worsening) of ocular inflammation, defined as a two-step increase in level of inflammation (anterior chamber/ vitreous) or the appearance of new lesions following initiation of ATT.ResultsA total of 106 patients (64 male, 42 female) received ATT for presumed ocular TB. Twenty-six (24.5%) patients developed progressive intraocular inflammation following ATT. Primary diagnoses in these patients were: anterior uveitis (n=1), intermediate uveitis (n=9), retinal vasculitis (n=3), serpiginous-like choroiditis (n=7), multifocal choroiditis (n=2), and pan-uveitis (n=4). Following progressive inflammation, diagnosis was revised in two patients (7.7%)-both responded to alternative therapy. Of the rest, majority (n=16; 61.5%) resolved with escalation of corticosteroid therapy. Five patients (19.2%)-all having intermediate uveitis-required therapeutic vitrectomy for resolution. Three patients (11.5%) had persistent inflammation at end of follow-up period.ConclusionProgressive inflammation following ATT for presumed ocular TB is common. It generally resolves on escalation of corticosteroid therapy. Cases not responding to increased immunosuppression need to be re-investigated to rule out a nontubercular cause.Eye advance online publication, 1 March 2013; doi:10.1038/eye.2013.5.

Concepts: Vasculitis, Corticosteroid, Retina, Ophthalmology, Progressive lens, Sarcoidosis, Uveitis, Escalation


PurposeThe purpose of this study was to determine the subfoveal scleral thickness in highly myopic eyes by enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) and to identify the ocular parameters significantly associated with the scleral thickness.MethodsThe subfoveal scleral thickness of myopic eyes (≥-8 diopters (D) or axial length ≥26.5 mm) was examined by EDI-OCT. The correlations between the thickness and the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refractive error, axial length (AL), the subfoveal retinal thickness, choroidal thickness, and posterior staphyloma height 2 mm from the fovea were investigated.ResultsA total of 75 eyes of 54 patients (21 men, 33 women; mean age, 62.3±11.3 years; mean AL, 30.2±1.68 mm) were studied. Eighteen eyes had no pathological retinochoroidal lesions, and 57 eyes had retinochoroidal lesion, that is, myopic schisis, choroidal neovascularization, and other retinochoroidal pathologies. The mean subfoveal scleral thickness was 284.0±70.4 μm, and the thickness was significantly correlated negatively with the absolute value of the nasal and overall average posterior staphyloma height (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). The subfoveal scleral thickness was also significantly correlated negatively with the relative value of the superior, nasal, and overall average posterior staphyloma height (P<0.05, P<0.01, and P<0.001, respectively). Stepwise analyses showed that the factor most significantly associated with the scleral thickness was the average relative posterior staphyloma height (F=16.0, P<0.001). The scleral thickness was not significantly different between eyes with and without myopic retinochoroidal pathologies (P>0.05).ConclusionPosterior staphyloma formation was a key factor associated with a posterior scleral thinning in highly myopic eyes.Eye advance online publication, 11 January 2013; doi:10.1038/eye.2012.289.

Concepts: Optics, Retina, Eye, Visual acuity, Arithmetic mean, Ophthalmology, Myopia, Staphyloma


PurposeTo assess the change in subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) following spontaneous resolution and low-fluence photodynamic therapy (PDT) using the enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT).MethodsA total of 36 consecutive eyes of 36 patients were included in this retrospective study: 16 eyes with spontaneously resolved CSC and 20 eyes with PDT-treated CSC. Best-corrected visual acuity and SFCT were evaluated at each visit until complete absorption of the subretinal fluid. SFCT of 32 normal subjects were also measured, as the control group. Wilcoxon’s singed-rank test was used to evaluate the effects of spontaneous resolution and PDT. To compare the SFCT of the eyes with resolved CSC with that of the normal eyes, Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction was also employed.ResultsSFCT of patients was 459.16±77.50 μm at the baseline, and decreased to 419.31±54.49μm after a spontaneous resolution (P=0.015). However, SFCT was not normalized in comparison with that of the normal subjects (P<0.001). SFCT in PDT group was also reduced from 416.43±74.01 to 349.50±88.99 μm (P<0.001), with no significant difference with the normal value (P=0.087).ConclusionsSFCT in patients with CSC decreased both after spontaneous resolution and low-fluence PDT. However, only in the PDT group, after disappearance of subretinal fluid, did it decrease to that of normal subjects.Eye advance online publication, 4 January 2013; doi:10.1038/eye.2012.273.

Concepts: Optics, Statistical significance, Mann–Whitney U, Non-parametric statistics, Eye, Visual acuity, Ophthalmology, Central serous retinopathy


PurposeTo compare multimodal imaging in detecting lacquer cracks in highly myopic eyes, and to correlate these findings with those of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).MethodsAn observational case series study. Patients with a refractive error worse than -8 diopters and lacquer cracks were recruited. The rates of detection of the lacquer cracks using multimodal imaging including near-infrared reflectance (NIR) imaging, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, and fluorescence angiography (FA) were compared. The characteristic findings of multimodal imaging were correlated with those of SD-OCT.ResultsNIR imaging was more sensitive (92.9%) in detecting lacquer cracks than either FAF (12.5%) or FA (67.9%). Lacquer cracks showed hyperreflectance on NIR, and they were consistently associated with a continuous retinal pigment epithelium-Bruch’s membrane complex, thinner choroid, and acoustic shadows on SD-OCT.ConclusionsNIR imaging is superior to blue laser light (FAF and FA) imaging in detecting lacquer cracks. SD-OCT in combination with NIR located primary pathological lacquer cracks in the intact retinal pigment epithelium-Bruch’s membrane complex as well as thinner choroid. These findings indicate that multimodal cSLO and SD-OCT imaging allow for detecting of lacquer cracks in highly myopic eyes.Eye advance online publication, 19 September 2014; doi:10.1038/eye.2014.221.

Concepts: Optics, Light, Refraction, Laser, Retina, Eye, Ophthalmology, Myopia


PurposeTo evaluate the morphological changes before and after the formation of a full-thickness macular hole (MH) in highly myopic eyes.Patients and methodsRetrospective observational case series. From 2006 to 2013, clinical records of patients with MH and high myopia who had optical coherence tomography (OCT) before the development of MH were reviewed. All patients had been followed for more than 1 year since MH formation to observe the morphological changes.ResultsTwenty-six eyes of 24 patients were enrolled. The initial OCT images could be classified into four types: (1) normal foveal depression with abnormal vitreo-retinal relationship (eight cases), (2) macular schisis without detachment (six cases), (3) macular schisis with concomitant/subsequent detachment (nine cases), and (4) macular atrophy with underlying/adjacent scar (three cases). After MH formation, one case in type 1 and one case in type 4 group developed retinal detachment (RD). In type 2 group, four cases developed RD at the same time of MH formation. The preexisting detachment in type 3 group extended in eight cases and improved in one case. Among all the cases, 14 eyes received vitrectomy and 7 eyes received gas injection. MH sealed in nine eyes after vitrectomy and four eyes by gas injection.ConclusionThe study revealed four pathways of MH formation in highly myopic eyes. MH from macular schisis tended to be associated with detachment. However, the evolution and the results of surgical intervention were not always predictable.Eye advance online publication, 9 January 2015; doi:10.1038/eye.2014.312.

Concepts: Scientific method, Optics, Retina, Ophthalmology, Retinal detachment, Optical coherence tomography, Myopia, Floater


To quantify the hospital burden and health economic impact of idiopathic intracranial hypertension.