SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Equine veterinary journal

28

It was shown that rolled-toe shoes smooth hoof-unrollment and thereby reduce peak loading of forelimbs in trotting Warmblood horses. Shoe design and shoeing technique for hind feet have been modified over recent decades from fully fitted, toe-clipped shoes to set-back, side-clipped shoes.

Concepts: Horse, Shoe, Shoes, Warmblood, Ambling, Trot, Harness racing, Combined driving

28

While surgical arthrodesis is the treatment of choice for osteoarthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint, some clients are unable to pursue surgery due to costs. A more economical technique was sought using intra-articular ethyl alcohol injections to facilitate ankylosis.

Concepts: Alcohol, Surgery, Ethanol, Joint, Antiseptic, Chloroform, Ligament, Methanol

28

To improve understanding of the internal structure of the proximal phalanx (P1), response of the bone to load and possible relation to the pathogenesis of fractures in P1.

Concepts: Finite element method, Hilbert space, Set theory, Partial differential equation, Finite element method in structural mechanics, Discrete mathematics

28

Reasons for performing the study: The ability of horses to habituate to novel objects influences safety in the horse-human relationship. However, the effectiveness of different habituation techniques has not been investigated in detail. Objectives: 1) To investigate whether horses show increased stress responses when negatively reinforced to approach novel objects, compared with horses allowed to voluntarily explore the objects and 2) whether a negatively reinforced approach facilitates object habituation. Methods: Twenty-two 2-3-year-old Danish Warmblood geldings were included. Half of the horses (NR group) were negatively reinforced by a familiar human handler to approach a collection of novel objects in a test arena. The other half were individually released in the arena and were free to explore the objects (VOL group). On the next day, the horses were exposed to the objects again without a human handler, to investigate the rate of habituation. Behavioural and heart rate responses were recorded. Results: All VOL horses initially avoided the unknown objects, whereas the handler was able to get all NR horses to approach and stand next to the objects within the first 2 min session. The NR horses had a significantly longer duration of alertness and a higher max heart rate in the first session. On the next day, however, NR horses spent significantly less time investigating the objects and had a shorter latency to approach a feed container, placed next to the objects, indicating increased habituation. Conclusion: A negatively reinforced approach to novel objects increases stress responses during the initial exposure but facilitates habituation in young horses. Potential relevance: Although a negatively reinforced approach appears beneficial for habituation, the procedure should be carefully managed due to increased stress responses in the horse, which may constitute a safety risk. Further experiments should aim to investigate differences in stimulus intensity.

Concepts: Horse, Heart rate, Object, The First Session, Warmblood, The Handler

28

Objectives: A wireless, inertial sensor-based system has previously been validated for evaluation of equine lameness. However, threshold values have not been determined for the assessment of responses to flexion tests. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate a sensor-based system for objective assessment of the response to flexion. Methods: Healthy adult horses (n = 17) in work were recruited prospectively. Horses were instrumented with sensors on the head (accelerometer), pelvis (accelerometer) and right forelimb (gyroscope), before trotting in a straight line (minimum 25 strides) for 2 consecutive trials. Sensors measured 1) vertical pelvic movement asymmetry (PMA) for both right and left hindlimb strides and 2) average difference in maximum and minimum pelvic height (PDMax and PDMin) between right and left hindlimb strides in millimetres. A hindlimb was randomly selected for proximal flexion (60 s), after which the horse trotted a minimum of 10 strides. Response to flexion was blindly assessed as negative or positive by an experienced observer. Changes in PMA, PDMax and PDMin between baseline and flexion examinations were calculated for each test. Statistical analysis consisted of a Pearson’s product moment test and linear regression on baseline trials, Mann-Whitney rank sum test for effect of flexion and receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis of test parameters. Results: There was a strong correlation between trials for PMA, PDMin and PDMax measurements (P<0.001). A positive flexion test resulted in a significant increase in PMA (P = 0.021) and PDMax (P = 0.05) only. Receiver-operator curve analysis established cut-off values for change in PMA and PDMax of 0.068 and 4.47 mm, respectively (sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.65) to indicate a positive response to flexion. Conclusions: A positive response to flexion resulted in significant changes to objective measurements of pelvic symmetry. Potential relevance: Findings support the use of inertial sensor systems to objectively assess response to flexion tests. Further investigation is warranted to establish cut-off values for objective assessment of other diagnostic procedures.

Concepts: Statistics, Measurement, Type I and type II errors, Assessment, Psychometrics, Mann–Whitney U, Horse, Maxima and minima

28

Increasing evidence suggests that reactions to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), particularly in the gut, can be partly or completely mitigated by colostrum- and milk-derived oligosaccharides. Confirmation of this hypothesis could lead to the development of new therapeutic concepts.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Milk, Lipopolysaccharide, PBMC, Colostrum

28

Reasons for performing study: Transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration (TVA) is performed clinically but there is little information available on complications associated with this procedure. Objectives: It is possible that TVA is associated with damage to the ovary and may induce peritonitis or peritoneal adhesions. This study was conducted to determine the effect of repeated TVA on mare health and ovarian status. Methods: Thirty-two mares were used for oocyte recovery via repeated TVA over a 3 year period; different mares were used each year. In Year 1, ovarian status was monitored in 11 mares by transrectal palpation and ultrasonography. In Year 2, 6 of 11 mares underwent abdominocentesis and were examined by laparoscopy after one TVA and again after multiple TVAs. In Year 3, 10 mares underwent multiple TVAs with either a 15 or a 12 gauge needle and the ovaries were removed for examination. Results: Four hundred and twenty-seven aspiration sessions (390 via TVA and 37 via needle placement through the flank) and 3202 follicle punctures (3161 TVA and 41 flank) were performed. One mare developed an ovarian abscess. Transient rectal bleeding was evident after 16% of TVA sessions. No adhesions were found on laparoscopic or gross examination of ovaries and there were minimal changes on histological evaluation. Conclusions: Follicle aspiration carries a small possibility (<0.5%) of ovarian abscess formation. There is a possibility of rectal abrasion or puncture but little gross or histological damage to the ovary. Potential relevance: These results provide a basis for using prophylactic administration of antibiotics after TVA and for advising mare owners of the rare but potential complications associated with the procedure.

Concepts: Anatomical pathology, Gynecology, Pelvis, Puberty, Ovary, Suspensory ligament of the ovary, Ovarian ligament

28

Gastric impaction in the horse is poorly described in the veterinary literature.

Concepts: Mammal, Horse, Veterinary medicine, Veterinarian, Horse colic, Wild horse, Odd-toed ungulate

23

Glucose and insulin dynamics may be different in adult and aged horses.

Concepts: Nutrition, Death, Insulin, Glucose, Age, Glycogen, Ageing, Carbohydrate

23

Intestinal absorption of hypoglycin A (HGA) and its metabolism are considered major prerequisites for atypical myopathy (AM). The increasing incidence and the high mortality rate of AM urgently necessitate new therapeutic and/or preventative approaches.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Mortality rate, Medical statistics, Mortality displacement, Hypoglycin