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Journal: Drug research


A sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) and its mononitrate metabolites, isosorbide 2-mononitrate and isosorbide 5-mononitrate (IS-2-MN and IS-5-MN), in human plasma was developed using capillary gas chromatography with electron-capture detection, whereas 1,2,4-butanetriol trinitrate was used as internal standard. The analytes were extracted with a simple liquid-liquid extraction from plasma and separated on a DB-1 column. The results of method validation demonstrated that the calibration curves were linear in range of 2-60 ng/mL for ISDN and IS-5-MN, 1-20 ng/mL for IS-2-MN, respectively. The precision (RSD%) was less than 15%, and the lower limit of quantitation was identifiable and reproducible at 2 ng/mL for ISDN and IS-5-MN, 1 ng/mL for IS-2-MN. The analytes in plasma were stable after being stored for more than 30 days and after 2 freeze-thaw cycles (-20 to 25°C). And then this method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic investigation on isosorbide dinitrate oral spray in healthy volunteers.

Concepts: Scientific method, Blood, Analytical chemistry, Pharmacokinetics, Standard, Chromatography in blood processing, Limit superior and limit inferior


In order to assess the bioequivalence of 2 different formulations of montelukast, a pivotal trial for the montelukast 10 mg film-coated tablets formulation and a pivotal trial for the montelukast 5 mg chewable tablets formulation were conducted.For the 10 mg study, 34 healthy subjects were enrolled in a single centre, randomised, single-dose, open-label, 2-way crossover study, with a minimum washout period of 7 days, while for the 5 mg study, 42 healthy subjects were included in another study with a similar design. For both studies, plasma samples were collected up to 24 h post-dosing and drug levels were determined by reverse liquid chromatography and detected by tandem mass spectrometry detection.Pharmacokinetic parameters used for bioequivalence assessment, area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to time of last non-zero concentration (AUC0-t) and from time zero to infinity (AUC0-inf) and maximum observed concentration (Cmax), were determined from the drug concentration data using non-compartmental analysis.In the 10 mg study, the 90% confidence intervals obtained by analysis of variance were 99.62-120.51% for Cmax, 102.25-117.37% for AUC0-t and 101.96-116.67% for AUC0-inf, which were within the predefined acceptable range of 80.00-125.00%.In the 5 mg study, the 90% confidence intervals were 91.14-98.46% for Cmax, 93.02-98.42% for AUC0-t and 93.09-98.63% for AUC0-inf, which were within the predefined acceptable range of 80.00-125.00%.Bioequivalence between formulations was concluded both in terms of rate and extent of absorption for both strengths.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Mass spectrometry, Analytical chemistry, Normal distribution, Analysis of variance, 0, Tandem mass spectrometry, Pharmaceutical formulation


An open-label, 2-treatment, 3-sequence, 3-period, single-dose, partial replicate crossover studies under fasting (n=48), fed (n=60) and fasting-applesauce (n=48) (sprinkled on one table spoonful of applesauce) modalities were conducted in healthy adult male volunteers to evaluate bioequivalence between 2 formulations of lansoprazole delayed release capsules 30 mg. In all the 3 studies, as per randomization, either test or reference formulations were administered in a crossover manner with a required washout period of at least 7 days. Blood samples were collected adequately (0-24 h) to determine lansoprazole plasma concentrations using a validated LC-MS/MS analytical method. To characterize the pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, Tmax, Kel and T1/2) of lansoprazole, non-compartmental analysis and ANOVA was applied on ln-transformed values. The bioequivalence was tested based on within-subject variability of the reference formulation. In fasting and fed studies (within-subject variability>30%) bioequivalence was evaluated with scaled average bioequivalence, hence for the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞, the 95% upper confidence bound for (μT-μR)2-θσ2 WR was ≤0, and the point estimates (test-to-reference ratio) were within the regulatory acceptance limit 80.00-125.00%. In fasting-applesauce study (within-subject variability<30%) bioequivalence was evaluated with average bioequivalence, the 90% CI of ln-transformed data of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ were within the regulatory acceptance limit 80.00-125.00%. Based on these aforesaid statistical inferences, it was concluded that the test formulation is bioequivalent to reference formulation.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Crossover study, Clinical research, Pharmacokinetics, Repeated measures design, Statistical inference, Bioavailability, Optimal design


Asthma is an increasing pathology with poor compliance. Achievement of control is possible but under intensive treatment. In this setting, fluticasone/salmeterol association delivered by dry powder inhalers is a valuable and proved option. A prospective, parallel, open-label, phase IV, multicentre non-inferiority study was conducted to determine therapeutic similarity between 2 different inhalers: Generic DPI and Diskus®, which both deliver a fluticasone/salmeterol association (CAS 80474-14-2/CAS 89365-50-4). A 103 uncontrolled asthmatic patients were randomly assigned in 2 groups, Generic (G) and Diskus® (D), and received the association for 18 weeks through the appropriate device. They were evaluated according to Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire and GINA/NIH guidelines. To demonstrate non-inferiority, the estimation of the Relative Risk between the Global Score Rate per group with its 95% confidence interval was calculated and compared against a non-inferiority margin obtained from a previous study. The Global Score Rate was 82% for G Group and 83% for D Group. The RR was 1.0124 (95% CI: 0.847-1.210). The margin set at 0.832 was not reached by the lower 95% CI (z=-2.097; p=0.018) pointing out non-inferiority. The results have demonstrated non-inferiority between groups. Thus, the 2 products are therapeutically similar.

Concepts: Asthma, Relative risk, Dry powder inhaler, Inhaler, Nebulizer, Phase IV, Salmeterol, Fluticasone/salmeterol


Diminazene aceturate and Antipyrine combination therapy is widely used in veterinary medicine. A simple reverse HPLC method for the analysis of samples of a ready injectable formulation containing a mixture of active ingredients and inactive excipients has been developed. The HPLC analysis was carried out using a reversed phase (RP)-C18 (250 mm×4.0 mm, 5 μm) column. The isocratic mobile phase consisted of a mixture of acetonitrile, methanol, phosphate buffer and hexane sulfonate; the flow rate was 0.6 mL/min and ultraviolet detection was at 291 nm. This method was validated in accordance with FDA and ICH guidelines and showed good linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity and the system suitability results were within the acceptance criteria. A stability-indicating study was also carried out and indicated that this method could be used for purity and degradation evaluation of these formulations.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Medicine, Solubility, Mixture, High performance liquid chromatography, Solvent, Pharmaceutical drug, Veterinary medicine


According to the high consumption of the mixture of B vitamins and diclofenac in several countries, this combination has constituted a frequently used option in pain therapy from inflammatory origin. Although the evidence obtained from inflammatory pain animal models has shown the existence of analgesic synergy between diclofenac and the B vitamins mixture, the corresponding clinical evidence is scarce. A double-blind, randomized clinical trial study was designed to characterize the analgesic effect and safety of diclofenac and B vitamins against diclofenac alone in patients with severe osteoarthritis. Forty eight patients programmed to total knee arthroplasty with a pain level ≥7 in a 1-10 cm visual analogue scale were allocated to receive a single intramuscular injection of sodium diclofenac (75 mg) alone or combined with thiamine (100 mg), pyridoxine (100 mg) and cyanocobalamin (5 mg), and the pain level was evaluated during 12 h post-injection. Diclofenac+B vitamins mixture showed a superior analgesic effect during the assessed period and also a better assessment of the pain relief perception by patients than diclofenac alone. This study constitutes a clinical support on the improvement of the analgesic effect of diclofenac by B vitamins in patients with osteoarthritis programmed to total knee arthroplasty, as a clinical model of inflammatory pain.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Experimental design, Clinical trial, Vitamin, Osteoarthritis, Diclofenac, Clinical research, B vitamins


Hepatitis C virus inhibitors based on benzoxazole scaffold were designed based on molecular modeling simulation study including docking into the NS5B polymerase active site. Several compounds showed significant high simulation docking scores relative to the assigned benzimidazole lead compound. The designed compounds were synthesized, structurally elucidated and their antiviral activity was evaluated through cell-based replicon in cultured Huh 5-2 cells. A number of the synthesized compounds showed significant inhibitory activity ranging from (52.2% inhibition up to 98% at<50 µg/mL). N-Benzyl-2-phenylbenzo[1,3]oxazole-5-carboxamide (8b) and N-Phenethyl-2-phenylbenzo[1,3] oxazole-5-carboxamide (8c) demonstrated genuine HCV inhibitory activity with EC50 values of 41.6 and 24.5 µg/mL respectively.

Concepts: DNA, Computational chemistry, Enzyme inhibitor, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B, Chemical compound, Hepatitis C virus, Molecular modelling


The pharmacokinetics of 2 brands of pregabalin 300 mg capsules were compared in 23 healthy human volunteers after a single oral dose in a randomized cross-over study. The study protocol was prepared with relevance to the requirements set in the US FDA and the EMA guidances for conduction of bioequivalence studies. Reference (Lyrica®, Pfizer, France) and test (Neurexal, Pharmaline, Lebanon) products were administered to fasted volunteers. Blood samples were collected up to 48 h and assayed for pregabalin using a validated LC-MS/MS method. The pharmacokinetic parameters AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, Cmax, Tmax, T1/2 and elimination rate constant were determined from plasma concentration-time profile by non-compartmental analysis method using WinNonlin V5.2. The analysis of variance did not show any significant difference between the 2 formulations and 90% confidence intervals fell within the acceptable range for bioequivalence: 80-125%. It was concluded that the 2 brands exhibited comparable pharmacokinetic profiles and that Pharmaline’s Neurexal is bioequivalent to Lyrica® of Pfizer, France.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Confidence interval, Normal distribution, Generic drug, Pharmacokinetics, Analysis of variance, Bioavailability, Bioequivalence


Buprenorphine and the mixed agonists/antagonists nalbuphine and pentazocine, formerly classified as µ-opioid (MOP) receptor antagonists, have more recently been shown to be partial to full agonists of the human MOP receptor. These receptors do not necessarily have to be maximally activated for a full physiological response. Partial agonists can also sufficiently stimulate signaling processes leading to a full analgesic response, as shown by the effectiveness of buprenorphine, nalbuphine and pentazocine in animal pain models and in clinical settings where these drugs induce analgesia with full efficacy without a ceiling effect. Submaximal doses of MOP receptor analgesics combined with submaximal doses of buprenorphine, pentazocine, or nalbuphine result in additive to over-additive antinociceptive effects in animal experiments. Only when doses are given that exceed the therapeutic dose range may the antinociceptive effect be reduced to the effect of either opioid alone. The analgesic effects of pentazocine and nalbuphine combined with morphine are reported to be additive or over-additive in various clinical pain conditions. Buprenorphine, which clinically behaves as a full MOP receptor agonist for pain relief, can be combined with full opioid agonists without precipitating withdrawal. Thus, the overall evidence on the analgesic effects of buprenorphine, pentazocine or nalbuphine combined with opioid analgesics under various clinical pain conditions contradicts the consensus that these compounds diminish MOP receptor analgesia when co-administered with a full MOP receptor agonist.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Opioid, Receptor antagonist, Agonist, Morphine, Inverse agonist, Buprenorphine, Superagonist


A number of 5-oxo-1-phenyl-4-(substituted methyl) pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid derivatives bearing pyrrolidine ring and methylamino residues in their structure were synthesized as potential antibacterial drugs. The chemical structures of all the compounds were established by their UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, IR, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopy. The in vitro antibacterial screening of all novel compounds was done against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results revealed that compounds 5d, e, f and g showed moderate to good activity against the tested microbes.