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Journal: Diagnostic and interventional imaging


Adenomyosis is a common benign uterine pathology that is defined by the presence of islands of ectopic endometrial tissue within the myometrium. It is asymptomatic in one third of cases, but when there are clinical signs they remain non-specific. It can often be misdiagnosed on sonography as it may be taken to be multiple uterine leiomyomata or endometrial thickening, both of which have a different prognosis and treatment. Adenomyosis is often associated with hormone-dependent pelvic lesions (myoma, endometriosis, or endometrial hyperplasia). It is less commonly connected to infertility or obstetrical complications and indeed any direct relationship remains controversial. The purpose of imaging is to make the diagnosis, to determine the extent of spread (focal or diffuse, superficial or deep adenomyosis, adenomyoma), and to check whether there is any associated disease, in particular endometriosis. The aim of this article is to provide assistance in recognising adenomyosis on imaging and to identify the pathologies that are commonly associated with it in order to guide the therapeutic management of symptomatic patients. Pelvic ultrasonography is the first line investigation. Sonohysterography can assist with diagnosis in some cases (pseudothickening of the endometrium seen on sonography). MRI may be used in addition to sonography to back up the diagnosis and to look for any associated disease.

Concepts: Endometriosis, Myometrium, Medical diagnosis, Gynecology, Pregnancy, Adenomyosis, Uterus, Endometrium


The spinal canal is frequently a source of difficulties, traps and diagnostic errors. Pitfalls related to artifacts are resolved by using appropriate sequences. Good knowledge of the appearance of certain particular anatomical structures (the cauda equina roots, the radicular veins of the lumbar spine and conus medullaris, the dorsal root ganglion) and of frequent variants (fibrolipoma of the filum terminale, common root sheaths, root cysts) will avoid a good many errors. Dilatation of epidural veins in intracranial hypotension can simulate the contrast enhancement of a tumour. An increase in epidural fat can induce pathogenic stenosis of the dural sheath.

Concepts: Lumbar puncture, Dorsal root ganglion, Lumbar vertebrae, Vertebral column, Conus medullaris, Filum terminale, Spinal cord, Cauda equina


The lower cranial nerves innervate the pharynx and larynx by the glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and vagus (CN X) (mixed) nerves, and provide motor innervation of the muscles of the neck by the accessory nerve (CN XI) and the tongue by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII). The symptomatology provoked by an anomaly is often discrete and rarely in the forefront. As with all cranial nerves, the context and clinical examinations, in case of suspicion of impairment of the lower cranial nerves, are determinant in guiding the imaging. In fact, the impairment may be located in the brain stem, in the peribulbar cisterns, in the foramens or even in the deep spaces of the face. The clinical localization of the probable seat of the lesion helps in choosing the adapted protocol in MRI and eventually completes it with a CT-scan. In the bulb, the intra-axial pathology is dominated by brain ischemia (in particular, with Wallenberg syndrome) and multiple sclerosis. Cisternal pathology is tumoral with two tumors, schwannoma and meningioma. The occurrence is much lower than in the cochleovestibular nerves as well as the leptomeningeal nerves (infectious, inflammatory or tumoral). Finally, foramen pathology is tumoral with, outside of the usual schwannomas and meningiomas, paragangliomas. For radiologists, fairly hesitant to explore these lower cranial pairs, it is necessary to be familiar with (or relearn) the anatomy, master the exploratory technique and be aware of the diagnostic possibilities.

Concepts: Neuroanatomy, Tongue, Nerve, Glossopharyngeal nerve, Vagus nerve, Nucleus ambiguus, Accessory nerve, Cranial nerves


To assess the incidence and presentation of ipsilateral cancer recurrences (ICR) after deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap reconstruction for breast cancer.

Concepts: Pleural effusion, Metastasis, Breast cancer, Cancer


Complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage are the major life threatening and functional components of the follow up of a ruptured aneurysm. Knowing how to identify these is a key challenge. They vary in type throughout the postoperative follow up period. The aim of this article is firstly to list the main complications of the acute phase (rebleeding, acute hydrocephalus, acute ischemic injury and non-neurological complications), the subacute phase (vasospasm) and the chronic phase of subarachnoid hemorrhages: (chronic hydrocephalus and cognitive disorders) and to describe their major clinical and radiological features. Secondly, we describe the long-term follow up strategy for patients who have suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage and have been treated endovascularly or by surgery. This follow up involves a combination of clinical consultations, cerebral MRI and at least one review angiogram.

Concepts: Bleeding, Cerebral aneurysm, Chronic, Ischemia, Acute, Radiology, Stroke, Subarachnoid hemorrhage


The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the short-term outcomes after percutaneous embolization of the superior rectal artery (SRA) with metallic coils and particles for the management of hemorrhoids.

Concepts: Rectum, Middle rectal artery, Superior rectal artery


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the reference imaging for the management of a large number of diseases. The number of MR examinations increases every year, simultaneously with the number of patients receiving a cardiac electronic implantable device (CEID). A CEID was considered an absolute contraindication for MRI for years. The progressive replacement of conventional pacemakers and defibrillators by MR-conditional CEIDs and recent data on the safety of MRI in patients with “MR-nonconditional” CEIDs have progressively increased the demand for MRI in patients with a CEID. However, some risks are associated with MRI in CEID carriers, even with “MR-conditional” devices because these devices are not “MR-safe”. A specific programing of the device in “MR-mode” and monitoring patients during MRI remain mandatory for all patients with a CEID. A standardized patient workflow based on an institutional protocol should be established in each institution performing such examinations. This joint position paper of the Working Group of Pacing and Electrophysiology of the French Society of Cardiology and the Société française d'imagerie cardiaque et vasculaire diagnostique et interventionnelle (SFICV) describes the effect and risks associated with MRI in CEID carriers. We propose recommendations for patient workflow and monitoring and CEID programming in MR-conditional, “MR-conditional nonguaranteed” and MR-nonconditional devices.


Regardless of the advances in chemotherapy, the only curative treatment for colorectal metastases is surgery, which must be complete and excise all of the metastatic sites of disease. Thanks to advances in neoadjuvant chemotherapy and also to alternative techniques, such as radiofrequency ablation, however, surgical treatments have become available to a larger number of patients and have improved patient survival. The aim of this article is to describe the different treatment strategies for colorectal metastases and to examine the role of imaging in defining the resect ability of these metastases. The key factors in the radiological report in the initial and post-chemotherapy assessments are described.

Concepts: Hospital, Patient, Oncology, Breast cancer, Lung cancer, Chemotherapy, Metastasis, Cancer


The purpose of this study was to identify sagittal spinopelvic parameters predictive of adjacent segment disease (ASD) on postoperative whole spine weight-bearing stereoradiography.


To compare morphological imaging features and CT texture histogram parameters between grade 3 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (G3-NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC).