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Journal: Diabetes care

172

OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis of an independent cross-sectional association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity and glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) in adults without known diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS HbA(1c) was measured in whole-blood samples from 2,139 patients undergoing nocturnal recording for suspected OSA. Participants with self-reported diabetes, use of diabetes medication, or HbA(1c) value ≥6.5% were excluded from this study. Our final sample size comprised 1,599 patients. RESULTS A dose-response relationship was observed between apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the percentage of patients with HbA(1c) >6.0%, ranging from 10.8% for AHI <5 to 34.2% for AHI ≥50. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking habits, BMI, waist circumference, cardiovascular morbidity, daytime sleepiness, depression, insomnia, sleep duration, and study site, odds ratios (95% CIs) for HbA(1c) >6.0% were 1 (reference), 1.40 (0.84-2.32), 1.80 (1.19-2.72), 2.02 (1.31-3.14), and 2.96 (1.58-5.54) for AHI values <5, 5 to <15, 15 to <30, 30 to <50, and ≥50, respectively. Increasing hypoxemia during sleep was also independently associated with the odds of HbA(1c) >6.0%. CONCLUSIONS Among adults without known diabetes, increasing OSA severity is independently associated with impaired glucose metabolism, as assessed by higher HbA(1c) values, which may expose them to higher risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Concepts: Diabetes mellitus, Blood sugar, Sleep, Sleep apnea, Obstructive sleep apnea, Glycated hemoglobin, Hypopnea, Medical conditions related to obesity

172

Epidemiological studies have repeatedly investigated the association between depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the results have been inconsistent. This meta-analysis aimed to summarize the current evidence from cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies that evaluated this association.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Randomized controlled trial, Meta-analysis

146

Previous prospective studies on the association of white rice intake with incident diabetes have shown contradictory results but were conducted in single countries and predominantly in Asia. We report on the association of white rice with risk of diabetes in the multinational Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study.

141

Observational studies show breaking up prolonged sitting has beneficial associations with cardiometabolic risk markers, but intervention studies are required to investigate causality. We examined the acute effects on postprandial glucose and insulin levels of uninterrupted sitting compared with sitting interrupted by brief bouts of light- or moderate-intensity walking.

Concepts: Insulin

92

Type 2 diabetes develops for many years before diagnosis. We aimed to reveal early metabolic features characterizing liability to adult disease by examining genetic liability to adult type 2 diabetes in relation to metabolomic traits across early life.

90

Improvements in sensor accuracy, greater convenience and ease of use, and expanding reimbursement have led to growing adoption of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). However, successful utilization of CGM technology in routine clinical practice remains relatively low. This may be due in part to the lack of clear and agreed-upon glycemic targets that both diabetes teams and people with diabetes can work toward. Although unified recommendations for use of key CGM metrics have been established in three separate peer-reviewed articles, formal adoption by diabetes professional organizations and guidance in the practical application of these metrics in clinical practice have been lacking. In February 2019, the Advanced Technologies & Treatments for Diabetes (ATTD) Congress convened an international panel of physicians, researchers, and individuals with diabetes who are expert in CGM technologies to address this issue. This article summarizes the ATTD consensus recommendations for relevant aspects of CGM data utilization and reporting among the various diabetes populations.

86

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is generally regarded as an irreversible chronic condition. Because a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) can bring about acute return to normal glucose control in some people with T2DM, this study tested the potential durability of this normalization. The underlying mechanisms were defined.

Concepts: Insulin, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity

61

This study updates previous estimates of the economic burden of diagnosed diabetes and quantifies the increased health resource use and lost productivity associated with diabetes in 2017.

Concepts: Economics

45

In type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and progressive β-cell failure require treatment with high insulin doses, leading to weight gain. Our aim was to study whether a three-meal diet (3Mdiet) with a carbohydrate-rich breakfast may upregulate clock gene expression and, as a result, allow dose reduction of insulin, leading to weight loss and better glycemic control compared with an isocaloric six-meal diet (6Mdiet).

45

Despite growing evidence that bariatric/metabolic surgery powerfully improves type 2 diabetes (T2D), existing diabetes treatment algorithms do not include surgical options.

Concepts: Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes