Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Current urology reports


There has been a rapid and widespread adoption of the robotic surgical system with a lag in the development of a comprehensive training and credentialing framework. A literature search on robotic surgical training techniques and benchmarks was conducted to provide an evidence-based road map for the development of a robotic surgical skills for the novice robotic surgeon.

Concepts: Surgery, Skill, Robotic surgery


Since epidemiological studies first demonstrated a potential positive effect of metformin in reducing cancer incidence and mortality, there has been an increased interest in not only better understanding metformin’s mechanisms of action but also in exploring its potential anti-cancer effects. In this review, we aim to summarise the current evidence exploring a role for metformin in prostate cancer therapy.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Metastasis, Medical statistics, Obesity, Prostate cancer, Radiation therapy, Screening


Rapid advances in imaging of the prostate have facilitated the development of focal therapy and provided a non-invasive method of estimating tumour volume. Focal therapy relies on an accurate estimate of tumour volume for patient selection and treatment planning so that the optimal energy dose can be delivered to the target area(s) of the prostate while minimising toxicity to surrounding structures. This review provides an overview of different imaging modalities which may be used to optimise tumour volume assessment and critically evaluates the published evidence for each modality.


In this review, we highlight the effects of the microbiome on urologic diseases that affect the pediatric patient.

Concepts: Medicine, Urology, Specialty


Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and upper tract pose significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. White light endoscopy plays a central role in the management of urothelial carcinoma but has several well-recognized shortcomings. New optical imaging technologies may improve diagnostic accuracy, enhance local cancer control, and better stratify treatment options. Confocal laser endomicroscopy enables dynamic imaging of the cellular structures below the mucosal surface and holds promise in providing real time optical diagnosis and grading of urothelial carcinoma. A variety of imaging probes are available that are compatible with the full spectrum of cystoscopes and ureteroscopes. We review the underlying principles and technique of confocal laser endomicroscopy in the urinary tract, with emphasis on specific application towards urothelial carcinoma. While the available data are largely related to urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, the lessons learned are directly applicable to the upper tract, where the clinical needs are significant. Ongoing efforts to optimize this technology offer an exciting glimpse into future advances in optical imaging and intraoperative image guidance.

Concepts: Urethra


The purpose of this review is to examine prostate cancer racial disparities specific to the African-American population.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Obesity, Prostate cancer, Radiation therapy, BRCA2, Screening, African American


In light of the announcement that the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 exam will transition to pass/fail reporting, we reviewed recent literature on evaluating residency applicants with a focus on identifying objective measurements of applicant potential.


Urologists are at significant risk due to radiation exposure (RE) from endourological procedures for stone disease. Many techniques described have shown a reduction of RE. The purpose of this article is to review available protocols to decrease RE during such procedures and provide tips and tricks for their implementation.


To present the latest evidence related to the impact of ureteroscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) on the renal function.


There are three technological parameters that play a key role on the performance of an ideal stent. These are its material, design and surface coating. This article highlights some fundamental developments that took place in these three areas of stent’s technology, in order to contribute to the identification of an ideal stent.

Concepts: Engineering, Play