Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Current sports medicine reports


Tennis may be considered a static and dynamic form of exercise with many well-demonstrated health benefits. Tennis has similar rates of injury to other individual recreational sports and junior competitive sports, without the catastrophic risk of contact/collision sports. Classifying tennis players into junior and elite categories versus adult recreational players may help in outlining volume of play recommendations, exposure risk, and types of injuries. Junior and elite players tend to tolerate higher volumes, have more acute and lower extremity injuries, and have more serious overuse stress injuries. Adult recreational players tend to tolerate lower volumes, have more overuse and upper extremity injuries, and more conditions that are degenerative. Many tennis players also develop asymmetric musculoskeletal adaptations, which may increase risk of specific injury. Tennis-specific evaluations may identify these at-risk segments, help guide preventive strategies including technical errors, and assist in developing return-to-play recommendations. Other racket sports such as squash, badminton, and racquetball have less data available but report both acute and traumatic injuries less commonly seen in tennis.

Concepts: Volume, Thermodynamics, Injury, Upper limb, Player, Squash, Racquet, Racquet sport


Abdominal hernias are common with over 20 million hernia repairs performed worldwide. Inguinal hernias are the most common type of hernia. Inguinal and sports hernia have been discussed at length in recent literature, and therefore, they will not be addressed in this article. The noninguinal hernias are much less common but do occur, and knowledge of these hernias is important when assessing the athlete with abdominal pain. Approximately 25% of abdominal wall hernias are noninguinal, and new data show the order of frequency as umbilical, epigastric, incisional, femoral, and all others (i.e., Spigelian, obturator, traumatic). Return-to-play guidelines need to be tailored to the athlete and the needs of their sport. Using guidelines similar to abdominal strain injuries can be a starting point for the treatment plan. Laparoscopic repair is becoming more popular because of safety and efficacy, and it may lead to a more rapid return to play.

Concepts: Surgery, Inguinal hernia, Hernia, Bowel obstruction, Hernias, Athletic pubalgia, Obturator canal, Spigelian hernia


Since their introduction in 1987, energy drinks have become increasingly popular and the energy drink market has grown at record pace into a multibillion-dollar global industry. Young people, students, office workers, athletes, weekend warriors, and service members frequently consume energy drinks. Both health care providers and consumers must recognize the difference between energy drinks, traditional beverages (e.g., coffee, tea, soft drinks/sodas, juices, or flavored water), and sports drinks. The research about energy drinks safety and efficacy is often contradictory, given the disparate protocols and types of products consumed: this makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Also, much of the available literature is industry-sponsored. After reports of adverse events associated with energy drink consumption, concerns including trouble sleeping, anxiety, cardiovascular events, seizures, and even death, have been raised about their safety. This article will focus on energy drinks, their ingredients, side effects associated with their consumption, and suggested recommendations, which call for education, regulatory actions, changes in marketing, and additional research.

Concepts: Health care, Coffee, Caffeine, Alcoholic beverage, Drink, Soft drink, Energy drink, Beverages


Depression is a leading cause of global burden. The mainstay of treatment is pharmacological and psychological interventions. While effective, not all people will respond to those treatments and alternative approaches for preventing and treating depression are required. Recent literature has demonstrated that higher physical activity (PA) levels and exercise confer protective effects on incident depression. Also, exercise has demonstrated efficacy on reducing symptoms for people with depression. Despite its effectiveness, similar to other treatments, some people may benefit more from exercise and identifying these potential predictors of response is necessary to deal with patients' and professionals' expectations. Dropout from exercise interventions is comparable to dropout from other treatments for depression and similar to dropout from exercise in other clinical populations. However, some strategies to increase adherence are important. In the present article, we provide an updated overview of the use of PA and exercise for the prevention and treatment of depression.


The use of self myofascial release (SMR) via a foam roller or roller massager is becoming increasingly popular both to aid recovery from exercise and prevent injury. Our objective was to review the literature on SMR and its use for preexercise, recovery, or maintenance. PUBMED, EBSCO (MEDLINE), EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched for variations and synonyms of “self myofascial release” and “foam rolling.” Data from nine studies were examined, and overall quality varied based on study protocol, muscle group targeted, and outcomes measured. Despite the heterogeneity of these studies, SMR appears to have a positive effect on range of motion and soreness/fatigue following exercise, but further study is needed to define optimal parameters (timing and duration of use) to aid performance and recovery.

Concepts: Effectiveness, Muscle, Academic publishing, Bibliographic databases, Myofascial release, Manipulative therapy


Sleep is an essential component of health and well-being, with significant impacts on physical development, emotional regulation, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Along with being an integral part of the recovery and adaptive process between bouts of exercise, accumulating evidence suggests that increased sleep duration and improved sleep quality in athletes are associated with improved performance and competitive success. In addition, better sleep may reduce the risk of both injury and illness in athletes, not only optimizing health but also potentially enhancing performance through increased participation in training. Despite this, most studies have found that athletes fail to obtain the recommended amount of sleep, threatening both performance and health. Athletes face a number of obstacles that can reduce the likelihood of obtaining proper sleep, such as training and competition schedules, travel, stress, academic demands, and overtraining. In addition, athletes have been found to demonstrate poor self-assessment of their sleep duration and quality. In light of this, athletes may require more careful monitoring and intervention to identify individuals at risk and promote proper sleep to improve both performance and overall health. This review attempts to highlight the recent literature regarding sleep issues in athletes, the effects of sleep on athletic performance, and interventions to enhance proper sleep in athletes.

Concepts: Better, Improve, Sleep, Quality, Quality of life, Intervention, Emotion, Gross domestic product


Physical activity and exercise training are underutilized by much of Westernized society, and physical inactivity may be the greatest threat to health in the 21st century. Many studies have shown a linear relationship between one’s activity level and heart health, leading to the conclusion that “if some exercise is good, more must be better.” However, there is evolving evidence that high levels of exercise may produce similar or less overall cardiovascular (CV) benefits compared with those produced by lower doses of exercise. Very high doses of exercise may be associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, and malignant ventricular arrhythmias. These acute bouts of excessive exercise may lead to cardiac dilatation, cardiac dysfunction, and release of troponin and brain natriuretic peptide. The effects of too little and too much exercise on the heart are reviewed in this article, along with recommendations to optimize the dose of exercise to achieve heart health.

Concepts: Blood, Coronary artery disease, Cardiology, Heart, Circulatory system, Artery, Coronary circulation, 21st century


Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has received widespread media attention and is treated in the lay press as an established disease, characterized by suicidality and progressive dementia. The extant literature on CTE is reviewed here. There currently are no controlled epidemiological data to suggest that retired athletes are at increased risk for dementia or that they exhibit any type of unique neuropathology. There remain no established clinical or pathological criteria for diagnosing CTE. Despite claims that CTE occurs frequently in retired National Football League (NFL) players, recent studies of NFL retirees report that they have an all-cause mortality rate that is approximately half of the expected rate, and even lower suicide rates. In addition, recent clinical studies of samples of cognitively impaired NFL retirees have failed to identify any unique clinical syndrome. Until further controlled studies are completed, it appears to be premature to consider CTE a verifiable disease.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Epidemiology, Death, Medical statistics, Demography, Psychiatry, Suicide, National Football League


The Concussion in Sport Group recently published its highly anticipated fifth consensus statement on sports-related concussion. The latest iteration features a new organizational format-the “11 Rs” and has input from a wider range of health care professionals, organizations, and experts in the field from both the sport concussion area and from related areas outside of sport. The stated objective of this current document is to “build on the principles outlined in previous statements and develop further conceptual understanding of sports-related concussion.” Its intended audience is “physicians and health care providers who are involved in athlete care, whether at a recreational, elite, or professional level.” We review significant updates including recommendations for sideline evaluation, return to play, and return to learn in athletes with sports-related concussion.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Medicine, Healthcare, Patient


Exercise is Medicine (EIM) and physical activity as a vital sign are based on health-focused research and reflect ideal frames and messages for clinicians. However, they are nonoptimal for patients because they do not address what drives patients' decision-making and motivation. With the growing national emphasis on patient-centered and value-based care, it is the perfect time for EIM to evolve and advance a second-level consumer-oriented exercise prescription and communication strategy. Through research on decision-making, motivation, consumer behavior, and meaningful goal pursuit, this article features six evidence-based issues to help clinicians make physical activity more relevant and compelling for patients to sustain in ways that concurrently support patient-centered care. Physical activity prescriptions and counseling can evolve to reflect affective and behavioral science and sell exercise so patients want to buy it.

Concepts: Psychology, Exercise, Medical signs, Behavior, Motivation, Human behavior, Exercise is Medicine, Exercise prescription