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Journal: Current opinion in pediatrics


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: According to recent Centers for Disease Control (CDC) data, the annual incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the United States is 1.6-3.2 million, of which the majority is classified as mild. Over half of these injuries occur in the pediatric population, and can often be attributed to a sports-related mechanism. Although postconcussion symptoms are usually short-lived, more lasting deficits can occur, which can be particularly disruptive to the developing brain. Recent literature detailing the pathophysiology of mild TBI (mTBI), with attention to pediatric studies, is presented. RECENT FINDINGS: Although concussion generally does not produce any structural damage on conventional computed tomography (CT) or MRI, advanced neuroimaging modalities reveal microstructural and functional neurobiological changes. Diffuse axonal injury, metabolic impairment, alterations in neural activation and cerebral blood flow perturbations can occur and may contribute to acute symptomatology. Although these physiological changes usually recover to baseline in 7-10 days, sustaining recurrent injury before full recovery may increase the potential for persistent deficits. SUMMARY: Understanding the pathophysiology of concussion in the pediatric population can potentially open therapeutic avenues to decrease symptom persistence and prevent further injury. Future studies in the pediatric population are necessary given the pathophysiologic differences between the developing and adult brains.

Concepts: Brain, Traumatic brain injury, Axon, Injury, Post-concussion syndrome, Diffuse axonal injury, Concussion, Head injury


Recent technological advances have allowed the in-vivo measurement of impacts sustained to the head during helmeted sports. These measurements are of interest to researchers and clinicians for their potential to understand both the underlying mechanics of concussive injuries and the potential for real-time injury diagnostics. Following an overview of impact biomechanics, this review will evaluate the following: in-vivo technology being used in American football players; impact frequencies and magnitudes; and the biomechanical threshold for concussion.

Concepts: Injury, Biomechanics, High school, Technology, American football, Concussion, National Football League, High school football


Manganese (Mn) is an essential element, but can be neurotoxic when exceeding the homeostatic range. We reviewed the most recent human studies (from January 2011 to July 2012) regarding the association between Mn exposure and cognitive, motor and behavioral effects on children.

Concepts: Psychology, Chemical element, The Association, Review, Most recent common ancestor


Advances in medical therapy have increased survival of extremely premature infants and changed the pathology of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) from one of acute lung injury to a disease of disrupted lung development. With this evolution, new questions emerge regarding the molecular mechanisms that control postnatal lung development, the effect of early disruptions of postnatal lung development on long-term lung function, and the existence of endogenous mechanisms that permit lung regeneration after injury.

Concepts: Medicine, Childbirth, Cancer, Pulmonology, Biology, Developmental biology, Cure, Therapy


Warts and molluscum contagiosum are very common viral skin infections, usually presenting in childhood. Despite the large number of people affected by them, high-quality trials of treatment are few and treatment is often chosen on the basis of cost, convenience and tradition.

Concepts: Infectious disease, Molluscum contagiosum, Number names, Wart, Virus-related cutaneous conditions, Cantharidin


Pediatric skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) constitute a significant number of office-based pediatric visits. With SSTIs on the rise, it is not only important to effectively treat the individual, but to do so appropriately and cost-consciously. In this article, we highlight new research related to the treatment of bacterial skin infections, molluscum contagiosum, and cutaneous warts, with the goal of guiding pediatricians in their practice against these common skin conditions.

Concepts: Staphylococcus, Tissues, Skin, Tissue, Molluscum contagiosum, Wart, Virus-related cutaneous conditions, Cantharidin


This article presents a new hypothesis about the possible relation between early life exposure to metals and psychosis. We review limitations of available research, and discuss novel approaches to overcome previous methodological barriers.

Concepts: Scientific method


Pilonidal disease, and the treatment associated with it, can cause significant morbidity and substantial burden to patients' quality of life. Despite the plethora of surgical techniques that have been developed to treat pilonidal disease, discrepancies in technique, recurrence rates, complications, time to return to work/school and patients' aesthetic satisfaction between treatment options have led to controversy over the best approach to this common acquired disease of young adults.

Concepts: Life, Creativity techniques, Pilonidal cyst


To summarize the existing literature on the genetics of athletic performance, with particular consideration for the relevance to young athletes.

Concepts: Genetics, Metaphysics


The recent explosion of genetic findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research has improved knowledge of the disorder’s underlying biology and etiologic architecture. This review introduces concepts and results from recent genetic studies and discusses the manner in which those findings can influence the trajectory of ASD research.

Concepts: Gene, Genetics, Greek loanwords, Autism, Pervasive developmental disorder, Asperger syndrome, Autism spectrum, PDD-NOS