SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Current opinion in anaesthesiology

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Office-based anesthesia is a new and growing subspecialty within ambulatory anesthesia. We examine major developments in office-based anesthesia and how patient safety can be maintained.

Concepts: Safety, Patient safety

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PURPOSE OF REVIEW: On the one hand, cardiac and aortic surgery is associated with a high rate of allogeneic blood transfusion. On the other hand, both bleeding and allogeneic blood transfusion is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and hospital costs in cardiac and aortic surgery. This article reviews the current literature between 1995 and 2012 dealing with transfusion protocols in cardiovascular surgery. The 16 studies fitting these search criteria have evaluated the impact of the implementation of ROTEM/TEG based coagulation management algorithms on transfusion requirement and outcome in overall 8507 cardiovascular surgical patients. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of point-of-care (POC) transfusion and coagulation management algorithms based on viscoelastic tests such as thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and thrombelastography (TEG) in combination with POC platelet function tests such as whole blood impedance aggregometry (Multiplate) have been shown to be associated with reduced allogeneic blood transfusion requirements, reduced incidence of thrombotic/thromboembolic and transfusion-related adverse events, and improved outcomes in cardiac surgery. SUMMARY: Implementation of POC algorithms including a comprehensive bundle of POC diagnostics (thromboelastometry and whole blood impedance aggregometry) in combination with first-line therapy using immediately available specific coagulation factor concentrates (fibrinogen and prothrombin complex concentrate) and defining strict indications, calculated dosages, and clear sequences for each haemostatic intervention seems to be complex but most effective in reducing perioperative transfusion requirements and has been shown to be associated with a decreased incidence of thrombotic/thromboembolic events, transfusion-related adverse events, as well as with improved patients' outcomes including 6-month mortality.

Concepts: Blood, Surgery, Coagulation, Platelet, Warfarin, Hemostasis, Blood transfusion, Coagulation system

26

Postpartum hemorrhage is increasingly frequent and a major contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality. Although individual steps, such as coagulation or surgical management, have been reviewed, there is little information on treatment algorithms.

Concepts: Algorithm, Mortality rate, Obstetrics, Obstetrical hemorrhage

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To review the belief’s of Jehovah’s Witnesses regarding the use of blood and blood products, and how to ensure that those patients professing to be Jehovah’s Witnesses are treated ethically.

Concepts: Ethics, Business ethics, Blood transfusion, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jehovah, Social philosophy

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As many as two of every three major surgery patients are malnourished preoperatively - a diagnosis rarely made and treated even less frequently. Unfortunately, perioperative malnutrition is perhaps the least often identified surgical risk factor and is among the most treatable to improve outcomes.

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Sugammadex is a selective relaxant-binding agent that is designed to encapsulate rocuronium and chemically similar steroidal muscle relaxants such as vecuronium. This review summarizes recent information on the use of sugammadex in clinical practice.

Concepts: Muscle relaxant, Muscle relaxants

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There has been a significant increase in the number and types of procedures performed outside of the operating room with nonanesthesia providers administering sedation. This review describes current recommendations for training nonanesthesiologists involved in administering deep sedation, summarizes best practices and highlights select patient outcomes.

Concepts: Performance

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Central venous pressure (CVP) alone has so far not found a place in outcome prediction or prediction of fluid responsiveness. Improved understanding of the interaction between mean systemic pressure (Pms) and CVP has major implications for evaluating volume responsiveness, heart performance and potentially patient outcomes.

Concepts: Blood, Heart, Thermodynamics, Artery, Vein, Pressure, Outcome, Systemic circulation

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To examine the potential harmful effects of hyperoxia and summarize the results of most recent clinical studies evaluating oxygen therapy in critically ill patients.

Concepts: Health care, Oxygen, Medicine, Clinical trial, Effectiveness, Illness

22

Sepsis-3 guidelines have implications in a deeper understanding of the biopathology of the disease. Further, the review focuses on timely topics and new literature on fluid resuscitation, the value of steroids in sepsis, and new therapeutic options such as angiotensin II, vitamin C, and thiamine as well as the emerging role of procalcitonin (PCT) in managing antibiotics.