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Journal: Craniomaxillofacial trauma & reconstruction


The natural course of several isolated and nonisolated orbital roof fractures is reported, by showing four cases in which a “wait and see” policy was followed. All four cases showed spontaneous repositioning and stabilizing of the fracture within less than a year. This might be explained by the equilibrium between the intraorbital and intracranial pressures.

Concepts: Bone fracture, Fracture, Thermodynamics, Fracture mechanics


Routine reconstruction of subtotal defects of the mandible and orthopedic rehabilitation supported by dental implants is achieved by means of detailed planning and lasts over a year. This article shows the outcomes of single-stage surgical treatment and immediate orthopedic rehabilitation performed with the help of preoperative virtual computer simulation. 3D investigation of pathological and donor sites, virtual simulation of tumor resection, positioning of the dental implants into fibula, virtual flap bending and transfer, virtual bending of fixing reconstruction plates, and fabrication of navigation templates and bridge prosthesis supported by dental implants were done preoperatively. The surgery included tumor resection, insertion of dental implants into fibula, elevation of fibula osteocutaneous free flap, rigid fixation within recipient site, and immediate loading by bridge orthopedic device. On 10-month follow-up, functional and esthetic results were asses as reasonable. Radiography showed dental implants to be integrated and positioned appropriately. We found that successful rehabilitation of the patients with extensive defects of the jaws could be achieved by ablative tumor resection, dental implants insertion prior to flap elevation guided by navigation templates, further osteotomy, modeling of the flap based on navigation template, flap transfer, and rigid fixation within recipient site by prebended plates, with application of prefabricated prosthesis.

Concepts: Implants, Prosthetics, Computer simulation, Dental implant, Dentistry, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, CAD/CAM Dentistry, Nobel Biocare


Mandibular fractures are commonly encountered by the maxillofacial surgeon. Maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF), or a combination of both, are the accepted standard treatments. This study aims to assess the role of a conservative minimal intervention protocol in the management of undisplaced/minimally displaced fractures of the dentate portion of the adult mandible and the complications associated with such minimalistic intervention. Thirty-four patients with undisplaced/minimally displaced fractures of the dentate portion of the adult mandible were advised to restrict mouth opening and limit themselves to a soft diet for a minimum of 4 weeks. All patients were advised follow-up at regular intervals for at least 3 months. Five patients were lost to follow-up. Symphysis and parasymphysis fractures were the most common fracture locations. Fourteen patients needed tension band stabilization with a mandibular arch bar/bridle wiring and three patients required extraction of luxated teeth. All patients showed satisfactory healing except three in whom additional intervention (ORIF) was performed. The improvement in mouth opening was statistically significant. Complications were seen more frequently among smokers and alcoholics. For patients with minimally displaced mandibular fractures, it is necessary to consider if the perceived benefits of intervention justify the associated added costs and possible complications. Patients have to be fully informed about the possible complications while using this minimal intervention protocol. This study concludes that a conservative minimal intervention management protocol for such fractures of the dentate portion of the mandible can produce satisfactory results.

Concepts: Bone fracture, Fracture, Mandible, Orthopedic surgery, Intervention, Internal fixator


Dermoid cysts are unusual neoplasms and can occur in every part of the human body. They represent only 6.9% of all dermoid cysts in the head and neck region; in the oral cavity, the incidence is low, approximately 1.6% of all dermoid cysts. Our aim is to present an unusual case of a large sublingual dermoid cyst with mandibular prognathism caused by cyst growth. We reported a case of a large sublingual dermoid cyst in an 8-year-old female patient. A bibliographic research from 1937 to 2013 is reviewed and we found only three cases of mandibular deformity, of which only one was a dermoid cyst of the floor of the mouth. Removal of dermoid cysts of the floor of the mouth should be completed as early as detected, especially in newborns and infants when osseous growth abnormalities could result if removal is delayed.

Concepts: Head and neck anatomy, Oncology, Human body, Cyst, Dermoid cyst, Pilonidal cyst, Tongue, Jaw


The aim of the study is to evaluate the utility of a simple tongue blade bite test in predicting mandible fractures and use this test as an alternative screening tool for further workup. This is a retrospective chart review. An institutional review board approved the retrospective review of patients evaluated by the Department of Otolaryngology at a single institution for facial trauma performed from November 1, 2011, to February 27, 2014. Patients who had a bite test documented were included in the study. CT was performed in all cases and was used as the gold standard to diagnose mandible fractures. Variables analyzed included age, sex, fracture type/location on CT, bite test positivity, and operative intervention. A total of 86 patients met the inclusion criteria and of those 12 were pediatric patients. Majority of the patients were male (80.2%) and adult (86.0%; average age: 34.3 years). Fifty-seven patients had a negative bite test and on CT scans had no mandible fracture. Twenty-three patients had a positive bite test and a CT scan confirmed fracture. The bite test revealed a sensitivity of 88.5% (95% CI: 69.8-97.6%), specificity of 95.0% (95% CI:86.1-99%), positive predictive value [PPV] of 88.5% (95% CI: 69.8-97.6%), and negative predictive value [NPV] of 95.0% (95% CI: 86.1-99.0%). Among pediatric patients, the sensitivity was 100% (95% CI: 29.9-100%), specificity was 88.9% (95% CI: 68.4-100%), PPV was 75.0% (95% CI: 19.4-99.4%), and NPV was 100% (95% CI: 63.1-100%). The tongue blade bite test is a quick inexpensive diagnostic tool for the otolaryngologist with high sensitivity and specificity for predicting mandible fractures. In the pediatric population, where avoidance of unnecessary CT scans is of highest priority, a wider range of data collection should be undertaken to better assess its utility.

Concepts: Positive predictive value, Negative predictive value, Type I and type II errors, Sensitivity and specificity, Binary classification, Specificity


Lateral dislocation of the intact mandibular condyle is a relatively uncommon clinical condition. Since the first description and classification of these dislocations given by Allen and Young, few classification systems have been proposed in literature with incorporation of different patterns of dislocations identified over the years. We share our clinical experience of nine cases of such dislocations with 14 dislocated condyles, and on the basis of clinical and radiological findings coupled with the review of existing classification systems, we propose a new classification system which includes all the possible patterns of such dislocations overcoming the major shortcomings of preexisting classification systems identified by the authors.


The AO CMF has recently launched the first comprehensive classification system for craniomaxillofacial (CMF) fractures. The AO CMF classification system uses a hierarchical framework with three levels of growing complexity (levels 1, 2, and 3). Level 1 of the system identifies the presence of fractures in four anatomic areas (mandible, midface, skull base, and cranial vault). Level 2 variables describe the location of the fractures within those defined areas. Level 3 variables describe details of fracture morphology such as fragmentation, displacement, and dislocation. This multiplanar radiographic image-based AO CMF trauma classification system is constantly evolving and beginning to enter worldwide application. A validation of the system is mandatory prior to a reliable communication and data processing in clinical and research environments. This interobserver reliability and accuracy study is aiming to validate the three current modules of the AO CMF classification system for mandible trauma in adults. To assess the performance of the system at the different precision levels, it focuses on the fracture location within the mandibular regions and condylar process subregions as core components giving only secondary attention to morphologic variables. A total of 15 subjects individually assigned the location and features of mandibular fractures in 200 CT scans using the AO CMF classification system. The results of these ratings were then statistically evaluated for interobserver reliability by Fleiss' kappa and accuracy by percentage agreement with an experienced reference assessor. The scores were used to determine if the variables of levels 2 and 3 were appropriate tools for valid classification. Interobserver reliability and accuracy were compared by hierarchy of variables (level 2 vs. level 3), by anatomical region and subregion, and by assessor experience level using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon’s rank-sum tests. The AO CMF classification system was determined to be reliable and accurate for classifying mandibular fractures for most levels 2 and 3 variables. Level 2 variables had significantly higher interobserver reliability than level 3 variables (median kappa: 0.69 vs. 0.59, p  < 0.001) as well as higher accuracy (median agreement: 94 vs. 91%, p  < 0.001). Accuracy was adequate for most variables, but lower reliability was observed for condylar head fractures, fragmentation of condylar neck fractures, displacement types and direction of the condylar process overall, as well as the condylar neck and base fractures. Assessors with more clinical experience demonstrated higher reliability (median kappa high experience 0.66 vs. medium 0.59 vs. low 0.48, p  < 0.001). Assessors with experience using the classification software also had higher reliability than their less experienced counterparts (median kappa: 0.76 vs. 0.57, p  < 0.001). At present, the AO CMF classification system for mandibular fractures is suited for both clinical and research settings for level 2 variables. Accuracy and reliability decrease for level 3 variables specifically concerning fractures and displacement of condylar process fractures. This will require further investigation into why these fractures were characterized unreliably, which would guide modifications of the system and future instructions for its usage.


With basketball gradually becoming increasingly popular across the United States, it is necessary for health care providers to understand injuries associated with the sport. We aim to determine the incidence of basketball-related facial injuries and further describe their patterns with regard to age, mechanism of injury, and degree of injury. An analysis of emergency department visits under the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was conducted from 2015 through 2017. Chi-squared testing (χ 2 ) was performed to compare categorical variables. After a review of results, a total of 4,578 patients were included for analysis spanning a 3-year time period (2015-2017). Lacerations were the most common injury overall (57.9%). Nasal fractures were by far the most common fracture (76.1%), and elbows to the face and collisions with other players were the most common types of injury mechanisms (31 and 28.7%, respectively). Adolescents (aged 12-18 years) were the most frequently injured group (42.5%), although young adults (aged 19-34 years) were also frequently affected (30.1%). Basketball facial trauma remains a prominent issue. Our research, in correlation with previous research, shows that current precautions to injury are not widely observed or are ineffective to the extent of need for further reform. It thus becomes necessary to provide patient education and develop more practical methods for decreasing player injury.


The aim of this study is to assess if there is an increase in postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) or bleeding complications in patients who received perioperative chemical thromboprophylaxis compared with patients in whom chemical thromboprophylaxis was held during periorbital trauma surgery. This is a retrospective chart review of patients undergoing periorbital surgery treated in three different city hospitals, by the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Texas, between August 2014 and December 2016. A total of 237 patients were included in this study. None of these patients suffered a postoperative VTE. A total of 102 patients received perioperative pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis in the form of enoxaparin or heparin. In this group, one patient suffered a buccal space hematoma. Chemical thromboprophylaxis was held in 135 patients preoperatively and for at least 24 hours postoperatively. In this group, one patient suffered a retrobulbar hematoma after repair of an orbital floor fracture. The rate of postoperative bleeding complications was compared by the chi-square test and was not statistically significant ( p  = 0.8417).


Primary restoration of the mandibular continuity remains the standard of care for defects, and yet several constraints preclude this objective. Interim reconstructions with plate and nonvascular bone grafts have high failure rates. The secondary reconstruction, when becomes inevitable, remains a formidable task. This retrospective study evaluates various issues to address secondary reconstruction. Twenty-one patients following mandibulectomy presented with various complications between 2012 and 2016 were included in the study. The profile of primary reconstruction includes reconstruction plate ( n  = 9), reconstruction plate with rib graft ( n  = 3), soft tissue only reconstruction ( n  = 4), free fibula ( n  = 2), inadequate growth of reconstructed free fibula during adolescence ( n  = 1), nonvascular bone graft alone ( n  = 1), and no reconstruction ( n  = 1). All had problems or complications related to unsatisfactory primary reconstruction such as plate fracture, recurrent infection, plate exposure, deformity, malocclusion, and failed fibula reconstruction. All were reconstructed with osteocutaneous free fibula flap with repair of soft-tissue loss. All flaps survived and had satisfactory outcome functionally and aesthetically. Dental rehabilitation was done in four patients. One flap was reexplored for thrombosis and salvaged. The challenges in secondary reconstruction include difficulty in recreating true defects, extensive fibrosis and loss of planes, unanticipated soft-tissue and skeletal defects, reestablishing the contour and occlusion, insufficient bone strength, dearth of suitable recipient vessels, nonpliable skin, tissue contraction to accommodate new mandible, need of additional flap for defect closure, and postirradiation effects. Notwithstanding them, the reasonable successful outcome can be attainable.