Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Continuum (Minneapolis, Minn.)


Purpose of Review: This article summarizes the clinical and electrophysiologic manifestations of nocturnal seizures, particularly nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE), parasomnias, and other disorders presenting with complex behaviors in sleep. The evaluation and treatment of patients with complex nocturnal behaviors can be challenging. While the differential diagnosis of sleep-related movements, including physiologic and pathologic phenomena, is extensive, the focus of evaluation in patients with complex nocturnal behaviors distinguishes between nocturnal seizures and parasomnias.Recent Findings: Seizures in NFLE have a wide range of complexity and severity, overlapping considerably with the disorders of arousal from non-REM (NREM) sleep. Video polysomnography with EEG (VPSG-EEG) has identified key clinical features useful in differentiating these disorders. A dysfunctional arousal mechanism involving the cholinergic system is involved in the pathophysiology of the autosomal dominant form of NFLE and NREM parasomnias. The high prevalence of parasomnias in NFLE families further confounds their distinction. VPSG-EEG combines PSG with comprehensive EEG to evaluate unexplained nocturnal behaviors when epileptic seizures are suspected. This procedure provides improved detection of interictal and ictal EEG abnormalities and time-synchronized correlation of clinical and neurophysiologic phenomena.Summary: The diagnosis of complex nocturnal behaviors is among the most difficult to establish in sleep medicine clinics and laboratories. VPSG-EEG is indicated in the evaluation of patients with complex nocturnal behaviors when routine EEG is nondiagnostic. Ongoing research is necessary to fully elucidate the pathophysiology of these disorders, which share a host of clinical manifestations.

Concepts: Sleep, Neurology, Electroencephalography, Epilepsy, Seizure, Neurophysiology, Non-rapid eye movement sleep, Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy


This article provides an overview of the most common peripheral neuropathic disorders in pregnancy with a focus on clinical recognition, diagnosis, and treatment.

Concepts: Neuropathy, Peripheral neuropathy


Focal epilepsy is the most common type of epilepsy in adulthood. This article discusses the seizure symptomatology, EEG findings, and imaging findings of the various forms of focal epilepsy. The majority of the article focuses on temporal and frontal lobe epilepsy as these represent the majority of focal epilepsies.

Concepts: Neurology, Epilepsy, Frontal lobe, Seizure, Postictal state, Myoclonus


To provide the neurologist with a framework for the clinical approach to sports concussion diagnosis and management.

Concepts: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry


Purpose of Review: This article provides a practical clinical approach for the role of exercise in the treatment and management of neurologic disorders.Recent Findings: A number of clinical studies have reported positive benefits from exercise in various neurologic disease states, suggesting that this mode of intervention should be considered as another option in clinical management.Summary: Significant evidence-based data exists confirming the positive effects of exercise in otherwise healthy populations. Good evidence also exists that physical activity may benefit people with long-term neurologic conditions. Despite this evidence, exercise is often neglected in patients with normal aging or neurologic disease progression. Neurologists should counsel patients on this therapeutic adjunct and provide specific recommendations when possible.

Concepts: Medicine, The Canon of Medicine, Avicenna, Neurology


Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a syndrome of increased intracranial pressure of unclear etiology that most often occurs in obese women of childbearing age but can also occur in men, children, and older adults. This article reviews the diagnostic criteria, clinical features, neuroimaging findings, differential diagnosis, and management options for this condition.


As individuals age, the quality of cognitive function becomes an increasingly important topic. The concept of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has evolved over the past 2 decades to represent a state of cognitive function between that seen in normal aging and dementia. As such, it is important for health care providers to be aware of the condition and place it in the appropriate clinical context.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Health care, Health care provider, Psychology, Medicine, Death, Cognition, Concept


This article presents a practical and informative approach to the evaluation of a patient with a rapidly progressive dementia (RPD).

Concepts: Dementia


Psychosis is a common and functionally disruptive symptom of many psychiatric, neurodevelopmental, neurologic, and medical conditions and an important target of evaluation and treatment in neurologic and psychiatric practice. The purpose of this review is to define psychosis, communicate recent changes to the classification of and criteria for primary psychotic disorders described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), and summarize current evidence-based approaches to the evaluation and management of primary and secondary psychoses.

Concepts: Greek loanwords, Schizophrenia, Psychosis, Bipolar disorder, Psychiatry, Emil Kraepelin, Schizoaffective disorder, Insanity


This article reviews the neurologic complications encountered with cardiac and pulmonary disorders, specifically focusing on endocarditis, cardiac arrest, heart failure, hypercapnia, hypoxia, and cystic fibrosis. As neurologic dysfunction is one of the most frequent complications of these diseases and may even be the presenting symptom, it is important to be familiar with these complications to foster early recognition and intervention.