SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Clinics in sports medicine

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Acute hamstring injuries are responsible for significant time loss for athletes. As there are a multitude of injury mechanisms, thorough evaluation is imperative for determining the appropriate plan of care and adequate rehabilitation is required to reduce the risk of recurrent injuries.

Concepts: Strain, Injuries, Injury, Sprain

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Controversy in management of athletes exists after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction. Consensus criteria for evaluating successful outcomes following ACL injury include no reinjury or recurrent giving way, no joint effusion, quadriceps strength symmetry, restored activity level and function, and returning to preinjury sports. Using these criteria, the success rates of current management strategies after ACL injury are reviewed and recommendations are provided for the counseling of athletes after ACL injury.

Concepts: Knee, Anterior cruciate ligament, Joint, Ligament, Anterior cruciate ligament injury, Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, Cruciate ligament, Lateral meniscus

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The intrinsic muscles of the foot play a critical role in the regulation of absorption and propulsion during dynamic activities. Dysfunction of these may lead to an increased demand on the remaining components within the foot core system to maintain dynamic foot control, leading to a more rapid breakdown of these contributors and those proximal to the foot. Training the intrinsic foot muscles through a systematic progression of isolation via the short foot exercise offers the opportunity to reincorporate their contribution into the foot core system. This article discusses the function of the intrinsic foot muscles, their contributions to dynamic foot control, and a progressive training paradigm.

Concepts: Foot, Sociology, Management, Exercise physiology, Contributions, The Opportunity, Fundraising, Contribution margin

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Sport-related concussions are common in the United States. Concussion rates have increased over time, likely due to improved recognition and awareness. Concussion rates vary across level (high school vs college), sex, and sport. Concussion rates are the highest among men, particularly in football, wrestling, ice hockey, and lacrosse where collisions and contact are inherent to the sports, although girls'/women’s soccer rates are high. In gender-comparable sports, women have higher concussion rates. Continued data collection will increase understanding of sport-related concussion and provide areas for targeted prevention in the future.

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Mild traumatic brain injuries, or concussions, often result in transient brain abnormalities not readily detected by conventional imaging methods. Several advanced imaging studies have been evaluated in the past couple decades to improve understanding of microstructural and functional abnormalities in the brain in patients suffering concussions. The thought remains a functional or pathophysiologic change rather than a structural one. The mechanism of injury, whether direct, indirect, or rotational, may drive specific clinical and radiological presentations. This remains a dynamic and constantly evolving area of research. This article focuses on the current status of imaging and future directions in concussion-related research.

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The medications used in postconcussion syndrome are typically used to help manage or minimize disruptive symptoms while recovery proceeds. These medications are not routinely used in most concussions that recover within days to weeks. However, it is beneficial to be aware of medication options that may be used in athletes with prolonged concussion symptoms or for those that have symptom burdens that preclude entry into basic concussion protocols. Medications and supplements remain a small part of the concussion treatment plan, which may include temporary academic adjustments, physical therapy, vestibular and ocular therapy, psychological support, and graded noncontact exercise.

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Female athletes are participating in collision sports in greater numbers than previously. The overall incidence of concussion is known to be higher in female athletes than in male athletes participating in similar sports. Evidence suggests anatomic, biomechanical, and biochemical etiologies behind this sex disparity. Future research on female athletes is needed for further guidance on prevention and management of concussion in girls and women.

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Pediatric patients with concussions have different needs than adults throughout the recovery process. Adolescents, in particular, may take longer to recover from concussion than adults. Initially, relative rest from academic and physical activities is recommended for 24 to 48 hours to allow symptoms to abate. After this time period, physicians should guide the return to activity and return to school process in a staged fashion using published guidelines. Further concussion research in pediatric patients, particularly those younger than high-school age, is needed to advance the management of this special population.

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Concussion remains a common injury among sports participants. Implementing risk-reduction strategies for sport-related concussion (SRC) should be a priority of medical professionals involved in the care of athletes. Over the past few decades, a multifaceted approach to reducing SRC risk has been developed. Protective equipment, rule and policy change/enforcement, educational programs, behavioral modifications, legislation, physiologic modifications, and sport culture change are a few of the programs implemented to mitigate SRC risk. In this article, the authors critically review current SRC risk-reduction strategies and offer insight into future directions of injury prevention for SRC.

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This article presents a brief history and literature review of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in professional athletes that played contact sports. The hypothesis that CTE results from concussion or sub-concussive blows is based largely on several case series investigations with considerable bias. Evidence of CTE in its clinical presentation has not been generally noted in studies of living retired athletes. However, these studies also demonstrated limitation in research methodology. This paper aims to present a balanced perspective amidst a politically charged subject matter.