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Journal: Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland)


There is a large body of evidence which supports the role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of mental health disorders, including depression. Dietary patterns have been shown to modulate the inflammatory state, thus highlighting their potential as a therapeutic tool in disorders with an inflammatory basis. Here we conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of current literature addressing whether there is a link between the inflammatory potential of a diet and risk of depression or depressive symptoms.


Several studies have demonstrated that vegetarians and vegans have much lower plasma concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids (i.e., docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids) when compared to those who eat fish. The purposes of this study were 1) to define the age and/or sex-specific docosahexaenoic plus eicosapentaenoic acids levels in red blood cell membranes (expressed as a percent of total fatty acids; hereafter the omega-3 index) in long-term vegans, and 2) to determine the effects of a vegetarian omega-3 supplement (254 mg docosahexaenoic plus eicosapentaenoic acids/day for 4 months) on the omega-3 index.


Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a complex condition, characterized by severe disabling fatigue with no known cause, no established diagnostic tests, and no universally effective treatment. Several studies have proposed symptomatic treatment with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) supplementation. The primary endpoint was to assess the effect of CoQ10 plus NADH supplementation on age-predicted maximum heart rate (max HR) during a cycle ergometer test. Secondary measures included fatigue, pain and sleep.

Concepts: Adenosine triphosphate, Cellular respiration, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Heart rate, Adenine, Chronic fatigue syndrome, Coenzyme Q10, Coenzymes


Preterm infants are a heterogeneous group and many accumulate growth deficits before and after initial hospital discharge. Although this is associated with worse cognitive outcome, recent meta-analyses suggest that nutrient fortification of breast milk, or the use of nutrient and energy rich formulae after discharge exert little effect on growth and neurodevelopment. However, the complexity of study design, inclusion criteria and outcome parameters, combined with differences in formula composition mean that meta-analysis may overlook important effects of differing interventions in sub-groups.

Concepts: Nutrition, Medical statistics, Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Milk, Educational psychology, Breast, Meta-analysis


While environmental factors are presumed to be primary drivers of food timing, preliminary evidence suggests that genetics may be an additional determinant. The aim was to explore the relative contribution of genetics and environmental factors to variation in the timing of food intake in a Spanish twin population. Because chronotype, bedtime and wake time are related to food timing, covariance with food timing was further assessed.

Concepts: Genetics, Nutrition, Environment, Food, Heredity, Heritability, Related



The COVID-19 pandemics is posing unprecedented challenges and threats to patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Acute respiratory complications that require intensive care unit (ICU) management are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Patients with worst outcomes and higher mortality are reported to include immunocompromised subjects, namely older adults and polymorbid individuals and malnourished people in general. ICU stay, polymorbidity and older age are all commonly associated with high risk for malnutrition, representing per se a relevant risk factor for higher morbidity and mortality in chronic and acute disease. Also importantly, prolonged ICU stays are reported to be required for COVID-19 patients stabilization, and longer ICU stay may per se directly worsen or cause malnutrition, with severe loss of skeletal muscle mass and function which may lead to disability, poor quality of life and additional morbidity. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition should therefore be routinely included in the management of COVID-19 patients. In the current document, the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) aims at providing concise guidance for nutritional management of COVID-19 patients by proposing 10 practical recommendations. The practical guidance is focused to those in the ICU setting or in the presence of older age and polymorbidity, which are independently associated with malnutrition and its negative impact on patient survival.


Several recent publications indicate that the maximum stimulation of muscle protein fractional synthetic rate occurs with intake of 20-30 g protein. This finding has led to the concept that there is a maximal anabolic response to protein intake with a meal, and that the normal amount of protein eaten with dinner will generally exceed the maximally-effective intake of protein. However, protein breakdown has not been taken into account when evaluating the anabolic response to protein intake. Protein anabolism occurs only when protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown. Higher protein intakes when protein synthesis is maximized is characterized by suppressed protein breakdown and via that mechanism leads to a greater anabolic response. This explains why when net protein synthesis is measured, the relationship between amino acid availability and net gain remains linear, without any apparent plateau of effect at higher levels of availability. We conclude that there is no practical upper limit to the anabolic response to protein or amino acid intake in the context of a meal.

Concepts: Protein, Amino acid, Acid, Amine, Metabolism, Ribosome, Peptide synthesis, Limit of a function


Caffeine intake in a convenience sample of U.S. college students (N = 1248) was surveyed at five geographically-dispersed United States (U.S.) universities.

Concepts: United States, U.S. state, University, Caffeine, College, Humid subtropical climate, Community college, Soft drink


Diet energy density is correlated with energy intake in patients with advanced cancer. Little information is available about the effects of energy density on energy balance, nor about the influence of other factors, such as systemic inflammation and disease stage. We assessed whether dietary energy density or energy intake predict energy balance over 4 months in patients with advanced cancer. We examined also the influence of systemic inflammation and survival time.

Concepts: Inflammation, Cancer, Oncology, Death, Obesity, Chemotherapy, Palliative care, Energy density