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Journal: Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery

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The authors illustrate the cases of two children with headaches, one diagnosed with Chiari type 1 malformation and the other with hydrocephalus, who played wind instruments. Both patients manifested that their headaches worsened with the efforts made during playing their musical instruments. We briefly comment on the probable role played by this activity on the patients' intracranial pressure and hypothesize that the headaches might be influenced by increases in their intracranial pressure related to Valsalva maneuvers. We had serious doubts on if we should advise our young patients about giving up playing their music instruments.

Concepts: Intracranial pressure, Hydrocephalus, Music, Arnold-Chiari malformation, Musical instrument, Oboe

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INTRODUCTION: Spondylolysis is most commonly observed in the lumbar spine, particularly L5, and is associated with spondylolisthesis, or anterior “slippage” of a vertebra in relation to an adjacent vertebra. Isthmic spondylolisthesis is the result of a pars interarticularis defect and will be the only type of spondylolisthesis addressed in this review. CONCLUSIONS: Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis represent a relatively common cause of low back pain, especially in young athletes, and a less common cause of neurologic compromise. When discovered in a symptomatic patient with corroborating imaging findings, early intervention provides an excellent prognosis. Herein, we review the anatomy and pathology of spondylosis and spondylolisthesis of the L5 vertebra.

Concepts: Spinal disc herniation, Low back pain, Lumbar vertebrae, Vertebra, Spondylolisthesis, Medical school, Spondylolysis, Pars interarticularis

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PURPOSE: Management of hydrocephalus with insertion of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is associated with significant complications in both adult and pediatric patients. These may be more common in developing countries due to poor economic conditions and a dearth of available resources. We report a 6 years' experience with VP shunt insertion in pediatric patients from a developing country, focusing particularly on factors affecting shunt failure. METHODS: Patients aged below 15 years, who had undergone insertion of VP shunts for hydrocephalus during the years 2006 to 2011, were included. A retrospective analysis of shunt survival was performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Logrank (Cox-Mantel) test. RESULTS: Among the total 113 patients, the most common etiologies of hydrocephalus were congenital hydrocephalus (19.5 %), brain tumors (14.2 %), and postcranial surgery (13.3 %). Overall shunt failure at a mean follow-up of 11 months was 23 % with the median time to first shunt failure being 68 days. Shunt survival was worse in patients with meningitis (p = 0.024), aqueductal stenosis (p = 0.008), postcranial surgery hydrocephalus (p = 0.006), Caesarean mode of delivery (p = 0.036), congenital abnormalities (p = 0.031), and a past history of surgical excision of mass lesion (p = 0.044).Frequency of shunt failure was also significantly affected by the location of brain tumor (p = 0.015) and prematurity (p = 0.015). CONCLUSION: Premature infants still have a higher rate of shunt failure. Patients with meningitis, aqueductal stenosis, postcranial surgery hydrocephalus, congenital abnormalities, and a past history of surgical excision of mass lesion may have early shunt failure. However, the frequency of shunt failure that we observed (23 %) was much lower than that quoted earlier in the literature and this may be a consequence of rigorous periodic evaluation of patients with VP shunt in situ.

Concepts: Medicine, Cancer, Oncology, Surgery, Intracranial pressure, Brain tumor, Hydrocephalus, Cerebral shunt

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The arachnoid mater is a delicate and avascular layer that lies in direct contact with the dura and is separated from the pia mater by the cerebrospinal fluid-filled subarachnoid space. The subarachnoid space is divided into cisterns named according to surrounding brain structures.

Concepts: Spinal cord, Brain, Cerebrospinal fluid, Meninges, Dura mater, Arachnoid mater, Pia mater, Leptomeningeal collateral circulation

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INTRODUCTION: Encephaloceles are considered by most to be a type of neural tube defect characterized by a herniation of the brain and meninges through structural weaknesses in the bony structures of the skull. DISCUSSION: Many different types of encephaloceles have been classified according to the location of the bony defect. Basal and frontoethmoidal encephaloceles constitute a nasal subclass of encephaloceles, which are herniations from the skull base and ethmoid bone, respectively. Basal encephaloceles are usually occult and can herniate into nasal structures causing obstruction. Frontoethmoidal encephaloceles usually present as a protrusion that is visible at birth and enlarges during crying. Both of these entities are rare with an incidence ranging from 1 in 5,000 to 1 in 40,000 live births around the world with the majority of cases localized in Southeast Asia. CONCLUSION: Although cases have been recorded since the sixteenth century, there is still a scarcity of knowledge on the exact causes and factors associated with the development of the disease. Many studies have determined these to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Most cases are nonlife threatening and the preferred method of treatment is surgical removal after diagnosis is confirmed with computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Prognosis is generally positive, especially in the subset of patients with frontoethmoidal encephaloceles.

Concepts: Central nervous system, Brain, Spinal disc herniation, Causality, Medical imaging, Magnetic resonance imaging, Skull, Vomer

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The aim of this study is to identify prenatal and perinatal risk and protective factors for the development of IVH, using a retrospective and case-control clinical study.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Infant, Embryo, Fetus, Breastfeeding, Abortion

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Prior research has examined predictors of shunt failure in children with hydrocephalus and concluded that the majority of shunts do not survive long-term. However, risk factors such as etiology, birth weight, and gestational age may vary across institutions and populations. We sought to identify the social, clinical, and neonatal factors associated with initial ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt failure in the intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) patient population and the patient population with an etiology other than IVH (non-IVH).

Concepts: Pregnancy, Fetus, Demography, Population, Obstetrics, Sociology, Hydrocephalus, Cerebral shunt

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BACKGROUND: Scalp dermoid cysts are subcutaneous sacs lined with a stratified squamous epithelium containing developmentally mature ectodermal tissues, including skin, hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands. METHODS: Because they consist of developmentally mature tissues, scalp dermoid cysts are generally benign. Typically, cysts are limited to an extracranial location, and management generally involves simple surgical resection. DISCUSSION: Because of the potential for intracranial and/or intradural extension associated with some scalp dermoids, however, a comprehensive clinical evaluation incorporating MRI and CT imaging is included in the diagnostic process.

Concepts: Skin, Squamous cell carcinoma, Squamous epithelium, Sebaceous cyst, Epithelial cells, Dermoid cyst, Hair follicle, Sebaceous gland

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OBJECTIVE: This study aims to review the role of choroid plexus coagulation (CPC) for hydrocephalus not due to CSF overproduction. METHODS: The literatures covering CPC/cauterization/extirpation and ablation searched through PubMed were reviewed. RESULTS: The history of CPC goes back to early 1900s by open surgery. It has evolved to mainly an endoscopic surgery since 1930s. With the development of other treatment methods and the understanding of CSF dynamics, the application of CPC dramatically decreased by 1970s. In late 2000, there was a resurgence of CPC in combination with endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) performed in Africa. CONCLUSIONS: CPC remains one of the options for the treatment of hydrocephalus in selected cases. CPC might provide a temporary reduction in CSF production to allow the further development of CSF absorption in infant. Adding CPC to ETV for infants with communicating hydrocephalus may increase the shunt independent rate thus avoiding the consequence of late complication related to the shunt device. This is important for patients who are difficult to be followed up, due to geographical and/or socioeconomic constrains. Adding CPC to ETV for obstructive hydrocephalus in infant may also increase the successful rate. Furthermore, CPC may be an option for cases with high chance of shunt complication such as hydranencephaly. In addition, CPC may act as an adjunct therapeutic measure for complex cases such as multiloculated hydrocephalus. In comparison with the traditional treatment of CSF shunting, the role of CPC needs to be further evaluated in particular concerning the neurocognitive development.

Concepts: Infant, Addition, Cerebrospinal fluid, Hydrocephalus

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The aim of this study was to determine normative data for fetal cisterna magna length (CML) measurement in a Brazilian population.

Concepts: Normative