SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: British journal of cancer

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Elevated body mass index (BMI, kg m(-2)) has been consistently associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) incidence. However, effects of adiposity over the life course in relation to EA/GCA have not been thoroughly explored.

Concepts: Obesity, Mass, Body mass index, Cardia

62

Background:Organically produced foods are less likely than conventionally produced foods to contain pesticide residues.Methods:We examined the hypothesis that eating organic food may reduce the risk of soft tissue sarcoma, breast cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and other common cancers in a large prospective study of 623 080 middle-aged UK women. Women reported their consumption of organic food and were followed for cancer incidence over the next 9.3 years. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted relative risks for cancer incidence by the reported frequency of consumption of organic foods.Results:At baseline, 30%, 63% and 7% of women reported never, sometimes, or usually/always eating organic food, respectively. Consumption of organic food was not associated with a reduction in the incidence of all cancer (n=53 769 cases in total) (RR for usually/always vs never=1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-1.07), soft tissue sarcoma (RR=1.37, 95% CI: 0.82-2.27), or breast cancer (RR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.02-1.15), but was associated for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (RR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.65-0.96).Conclusions:In this large prospective study there was little or no decrease in the incidence of cancer associated with consumption of organic food, except possibly for non-Hodgkin lymphoma.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 27 March 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.148 www.bjcancer.com.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Soft tissue sarcoma, Chemotherapy, Food, Types of cancer, Lymphoma, Sarcoma

52

The relationship between long-chain omega-3 (LCn3), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), omega-6 and total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intakes and cancer risk is unclear.

49

Improving the ability to identify early-stage head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) can improve treatment outcomes and patient morbidity. We sought to determine the diagnostic accuracy of breath analysis as a non-invasive test for detecting HNSCC.

45

Unsupervised learning methods, such as Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, are commonly used for the analysis of genomic platform data. Unfortunately, such approaches ignore the well-documented heterogeneous composition of prostate cancer samples. Our aim is to use more sophisticated analytical approaches to deconvolute the structure of prostate cancer transcriptome data, providing novel clinically actionable information for this disease.

39

Cancer fear and fatalism are believed to be higher in ethnic minorities and may contribute to lower engagement with cancer prevention and early detection. We explored the levels of cancer fear and fatalism in six ethnic groups in the United Kingdom and examined the contribution of acculturation and general fatalism.

Concepts: United States, United Kingdom, Minority group, Minority, Minorities, Minority language, Linguistic rights, Minority religion

35

Little is known about modifiable behaviours that may be associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) survival. We conducted a pooled analysis of 12 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic physical inactivity and mortality.

Concepts: Vitamin D, Metastasis, Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, BRCA2, The Association, Ovarian cancer

34

It is plausible that night shift work could affect breast cancer risk, possibly by melatonin suppression or circadian clock disruption, but epidemiological evidence is inconclusive.

34

Observational studies have shown that physical activity levels are inversely, and sedentary behaviours are positively, associated with colorectal cancer risk; however, whether these relationships are consistent across anatomical subsites is uncertain.

Concepts: Obesity, Overweight, Colorectal cancer, Pet Shop Boys

34

Background:There are wide international differences in 1-year cancer survival. The UK and Denmark perform poorly compared with other high-income countries with similar health care systems: Australia, Canada and Sweden have good cancer survival rates, Norway intermediate survival rates. The objective of this study was to examine the pattern of differences in cancer awareness and beliefs across these countries to identify where these might contribute to the pattern of survival.Methods:We carried out a population-based telephone interview survey of 19 079 men and women aged 50 years in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the UK using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure.Results:Awareness that the risk of cancer increased with age was lower in the UK (14%), Canada (13%) and Australia (16%) but was higher in Denmark (25%), Norway (29%) and Sweden (38%). Symptom awareness was no lower in the UK and Denmark than other countries. Perceived barriers to symptomatic presentation were highest in the UK, in particular being worried about wasting the doctor’s time (UK 34%; Canada 21%; Australia 14%; Denmark 12%; Norway 11%; Sweden 9%).Conclusion:The UK had low awareness of age-related risk and the highest perceived barriers to symptomatic presentation, but symptom awareness in the UK did not differ from other countries. Denmark had higher awareness of age-related risk and few perceived barriers to symptomatic presentation. This suggests that other factors must be involved in explaining Denmark’s poor survival rates. In the UK, interventions that address barriers to prompt presentation in primary care should be developed and evaluated.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 31 January 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2012.542 www.bjcancer.com.

Concepts: Europe, Constitutional monarchy, Parliamentary system