Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Brain stimulation


Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a chronic and disabling disorder with poor response to pharmacological treatments. Converging evidences suggest that OCD patients suffer from dysfunction of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit, including in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC).

Concepts: Medicine, Brain, Cerebrum, Limbic system, Brodmann area 24, Anterior cingulate cortex, Cingulate cortex, Obsessive–compulsive disorder


Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used to enhance endurance performance but its precise mechanisms and effects remain unknown.

Concepts: Electricity, Electrochemistry, Direct current, Alternating current, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, Transcranial direct current stimulation


Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is efficacious for acute treatment of resistant major depressive disorder (MDD), but there is little information on maintenance TMS after acute response.

Concepts: Transcranial magnetic stimulation, Bipolar disorder, Major depressive disorder, Seasonal affective disorder, Types of psychological depression


Transcranial ultrasound (TUS) can modulate brain function. To assess possible TUS modulation of mental states, we investigated effects on subjective reports of pain and mood of sub-thermal TUS versus placebo applied to frontal scalp and brain of chronic pain patient volunteers.

Concepts: Circle of fifths


Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) customarily uses high-field electromagnets to achieve therapeutic efficacy in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Low-field magnetic stimulation also may be useful for treatment of MDD, with fewer treatment-emergent adverse events.

Concepts: Major depressive disorder, Dysthymia


The vestibular system is involved in the control of standing balance. Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a noninvasive technique that can stimulate the vestibular system. In recent years, noisy GVS (nGVS) using noise current stimulation has been attempted, but it has not been clarified whether it affects postural sway in open-eye standing.

Concepts: Vestibular system, Stimulation, Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation


In Parkinson’s disease (PD), the influence of chronic pain on motor features has never been investigated. We have recently designed a technique that combines nociceptive system activation by laser stimuli and primary motor cortex (M1) activation through transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), in a laser-paired associative stimulation design (Laser-PAS). In controls, Laser-PAS induces long-term changes in motor evoked potentials reflecting M1 long-term potentiation-like plasticity, arising from pain-motor integration.

Concepts: Cerebral cortex, Cerebrum, Pain, Nociception, Evoked potential, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, Motor cortex, Primary motor cortex


Galvanic vestibular stimulation delivered as zero-mean current noise (noisy GVS) has been shown to improve static and dynamic postural stability probably by enhancing vestibular information.

Concepts: Vestibular system, Battery, Gait, Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation


The vagus nerve is involved in regulating immunity and resolving inflammation. Current strategies aimed at modulating neuroinflammation and cognitive decline, in many cases, are limited and ineffective.


Traumatic stress can have lasting effects on neurobiology and result in psychiatric conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We hypothesize that non-invasive cervical vagal nerve stimulation (nVNS) may alleviate trauma symptoms by reducing stress sympathetic reactivity. This study examined how nVNS alters neural responses to personalized traumatic scripts.