Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: BMJ case reports


Sudden onset sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is frequently seen by otolaryngologists. The exact pathophysiology of the disease is still unknown, with the most likely causative factor being following a viral infection. Immediate steroids are the best treatment to improve prognosis. Despite a plethora of papers in the literature describing SSNHL, there are only a few reported cases of hearing loss following COVID-19, none of which have been reported in the UK. This paper presents the first UK case of SSNHL following COVID-19. Physical examination and imaging excluded any other cause of hearing loss. A literature review showed that four other cases have been previously described. Hearing loss can be a significant cause of morbidity and can easily be missed in the intensive care setting. Being aware and screening for SSNHL following COVID-19 enables an early course of steroids, which offers the best chance of recovering hearing.


In this report, we present a novel technique of successful coil embolisation using temporary deployment of two Comaneci devices placed in Y configuration across a wide-neck ruptured basilar tip aneurysm. The placement of two devices across the wide aneurysm neck allowed optimal coverage for safe coil delivery, while maintaining parent vessel patency. This case highlights the unique and safe applicability of two crossed Comaneci devices in a ruptured aneurysm with unfavourable anatomy, ultimately resulting in complete aneurysm obliteration. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of double Comaneci usage in a wide-neck ruptured aneurysm. This technique can be potentially applied in challenging wide-neck bifurcation aneurysms, particularly when double antiplatelet therapy is of concern.


Spontaneous perforation of the pharynx is an unusual condition. Due to its non-specific presentation and general lack of awareness, diagnosis and intervention may be delayed resulting in potential complications. This case reports a rare spontaneous perforation of the pyriform sinus after a forceful sneeze, leading to cervical subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum.

Concepts: Subcutaneous emphysema, Pneumomediastinum


Isolated chondral defects have a limited capacity to heal and predispose to the development of osteoarthritis. Current surgical management can be unpredictable in outcome. Improved understanding of the action of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has seen renewed interest in their role in cartilage repair. A 26-year-old athlete presented with a post-traumatic, isolated patella chondral defect. The patient underwent an arthroscopy with removal of a chondral loose body. After failure to symptomatically improve 12 months following surgery, the patient received intra-articular autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) therapy.

Concepts: Bone, Stem cell, Mesenchymal stem cell, Bone marrow, Stem cells, Osteoarthritis, Knee, Mesenchyme


This case series documents three patients referred to the Intensive Dietary Management clinic in Toronto, Canada, for insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes. It demonstrates the effectiveness of therapeutic fasting to reverse their insulin resistance, resulting in cessation of insulin therapy while maintaining control of their blood sugars. In addition, these patients were also able to lose significant amounts of body weight, reduce their waist circumference and also reduce their glycated haemoglobin level.


This case demonstrates the effective and sustainable use of intermittent fasting (IF) and ketogenic diet (KD) in a normal weight patient with type 2 diabetes, who did not attain glycaemic control with a standard care approach. A 57-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and strict adherence to a standard diabetic diet presented with a haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 9.3%. Within 4 months of transitioning to KD, combined with IF, she achieved glycaemic control off pharmacotherapy, with HbA1c of 6.4. IF regimens started as 24 hours three times per week, followed by 42 hours three times per week, then 42 hours two times per week and 16 hours once per week. A maintenance phase was then begun at 8 months; IF was reduced to 16 hours per day, with 24 hours three times per month, and metformin was restarted. At 14 months, HbA1c reached 5.8%, and body mass index was minimally changed.


An active 72-year-old man presented to the accident and emergency department (A&E) with odynophagia, dysphagia and haemoptysis 6 days after a minor operation and was discharged after treatment for an aspiration pneumonia. He presented to A&E 2 days later with worsening symptoms and was found to have dentures lodged in his larynx which were then removed in theatre. For 6 weeks after removal, he had periodic episodes of frank haemoptysis requiring multiple blood transfusions and, after extensive investigation, was found to have an erosion into an arterial vessel on his right parapharyngeal wall, just posterior to the glossopharyngeal sulcus. This case raises questions about perioperative care in patients with dentures, diagnostic decision-making in the emergency care setting and postoperative care after delayed removal of foreign bodies from the upper aerodigestive tract.


A patient presented with left upper eyelid swelling and ptosis. The MRI reported a cyst with proteinaceous content. On surgical excision of the cyst, a rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lens was found. The RGP lens was encapsulated within the upper eyelid soft tissue. It was later revealed that the patient experienced childhood trauma while wearing RGP contact lenses 28 years previously. The patient assumed that the RGP lens fell out and was lost; however, it can be inferred that the lens migrated into the eyelid and resided there asymptomatically for 28 years.


We report the case of a bronchial foreign body, following a tracheostomy site swab for SARS-CoV-2, aiming to raise awareness and vigilance. A qualified nurse was performing a routine SARS-CoV-2 swab on a 51-year-old woman, fitted with a tracheostomy in the recent past following a craniotomy. This was part of the discharging protocol to a nursing home. During the sampling, part of the swab stylet snapped and was inadvertently dropped through the tracheostomy site. Initial CT imaging was reported as showing no signs of a foreign body but some inflammatory changes. Bedside flexible endoscopy through the tracheostomy site revealed the swab in a right lobar bronchus. This was subsequently removed by flexible bronchoscopy. This case highlights the need for clear guidance on how samples for SARS-CoV-2 are taken from patients with front of neck airways (laryngectomy/tracheοstomy) and the potential pitfalls involved.


A man in his 40s was brought to the accident and emergency department in an acute psychotic state, 3 weeks after the European Union referendum results in the UK were declared. His mental health had deteriorated rapidly following the announcement of the results, with significant concerns about Brexit. He presented as agitated, confused and thought disordered. He had auditory hallucinations, and paranoid, referential, misidentification and bizarre delusions. He recovered completely within 2 weeks after a brief admission and treatment with olanzapine. He had experienced a similar episode of much less severity 13 years previously after major work related stress which resolved completely within a few days. He was experiencing stress related to work and family prior to the current episode which could potentially have been a contributory factor. Political events can act as major psychological stressors and have a significant impact on the mental health of people, especially those with a predisposition to develop mental illness.