SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: BMC pulmonary medicine

173

Pirfenidone is a novel anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory agent that inhibits the progression of fibrosis in animal models and in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We previously showed that pirfenidone inhibits the over-expression of collagen type I and of heat shock protein (HSP) 47, a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, in human lung fibroblasts stimulated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in vitro. The increased numbers of HSP47-positive type II pneumocytes as well as fibroblasts were also diminished by pirfenidone in an animal model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin. The present study evaluates the effects of pirfenidone on collagen type I and HSP47 expression in the human alveolar epithelial cell line, A549 cells in vitro.

Concepts: Protein, Cell, Lung, Collagen, Fibrosis, Chaperone, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Heat shock protein

169

BACKGROUND: Among a variety of more common differential diagnoses, the aetiology of acute respiratory failure includes Lyme neuroborreliosis. CASE PRESENTATION: We report an 87-years old huntsman with unilateral phrenic nerve palsy as a consequence of Lyme neuroborreliosis. CONCLUSION: Although Lyme neuroborreliosis is a rare cause of diaphragmatic weakness, it should be considered in the differential workup because of its potentially treatable nature.

Concepts: Medical terms, Lyme disease, Respiratory system, Thoracic diaphragm, Differential diagnosis, Phrenic nerve, Respiratory failure, Neuroborreliosis

163

Pulmonary rehabilitation is widely advocated for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to improve exercise capacity, symptoms and quality of life, however only a minority of individuals with COPD are able to participate. Travel and transport are frequently cited as barriers to uptake of centre-based programs. Other models of pulmonary rehabilitation, including home-based programs, have been proposed in order to improve access to this important treatment. Previous studies of home-based pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD have demonstrated improvement in exercise capacity and quality of life, but not all elements of the program were conducted in the home environment. It is uncertain whether a pulmonary rehabilitation program delivered in its entirety at home is cost effective and equally capable of producing benefits in exercise capacity, symptoms and quality of life as a hospital-based program. The aim of this study is to compare the costs and benefits of home-based and hospital-based pulmonary rehabilitation for people with COPD.Design/methods: This randomised, controlled, equivalence trial conducted at two centres will recruit 166 individuals with spirometrically confirmed COPD. Participants will be randomly allocated to hospital-based or home-based pulmonary rehabilitation. Hospital programs will follow the traditional outpatient model consisting of twice weekly supervised exercise training and education for eight weeks. Home-based programs will involve one home visit followed by seven weekly telephone calls, using a motivational interviewing approach to enhance exercise participation and facilitate self management. The primary outcome is change in 6-minute walk distance immediately following intervention. Measurements of exercise capacity, physical activity, symptoms and quality of life will be taken at baseline, immediately following the intervention and at 12 months, by a blinded assessor. Completion rates will be compared between programs. Direct healthcare costs and indirect (patient-related) costs will be measured to compare the cost-effectiveness of each program.

Concepts: Asthma, Pneumonia, Costs, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

162

Bronchoscopy is frequently used for the evaluation of suspicious pulmonary lesions found on computed tomography, but its sensitivity for detecting lung cancer is limited. Recently, a bronchial genomic classifier was validated to improve the sensitivity of bronchoscopy for lung cancer detection, demonstrating a high sensitivity and negative predictive value among patients at intermediate risk (10-60 %) for lung cancer with an inconclusive bronchoscopy. Our objective for this study was to determine if a negative genomic classifier result that down-classifies a patient from intermediate risk to low risk (<10 %) for lung cancer would reduce the rate that physicians recommend more invasive testing among patients with an inconclusive bronchoscopy.

Concepts: Cancer, Pulmonology, Lung cancer, Positive predictive value, Negative predictive value, Sensitivity and specificity, Decision theory, Binary classification

114

Medical thoracoscopy has been shown to be an efficacious procedure in diagnosing unexplained exudative pleural effusions with excellent safety. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic significance of thoracoscopy in the management of patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE).

Concepts: Pulmonology, Medical terms, Diagnosis, Physician, Pleural effusion, Pleural cavity, Effusion, Thoracoscopy

67

E-cigarette use prevalence has grown rapidly in the US. Despite the popularity of these products, few acute exposure toxicity studies exist, and studies on long-term pulmonary health effects are limited. E-cigarette users who are never combustible cigarette smokers (sole users) constitute a unique group of young adults that may be at increased risk of bronchial hyperreactivity and development of asthma. Given the public health concern about the potential pulmonary health effects of sole e-cigarette use, we aimed to examine the association between e-cigarette use and asthma among never combustible cigarette smokers.

26

The diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and other interstitial lung diseases (ILD) presents significant clinical challenges. To gain insights regarding the diagnostic experience of patients with ILD and to identify potential barriers to a timely and accurate diagnosis, we developed an online questionnaire and conducted a national survey of adults with a self-reported diagnosis of ILD.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Diseases and disorders, Pulmonology, Medical terms, Fibrosis, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Pulmonary fibrosis, Interstitial lung disease

19

Air pollution has many effects on the health of both adults and children, but children’s vulnerability is unique. The aim of this review is to discuss the possible molecular mechanisms linking air pollution and asthma in children, also taking into account their genetic and epigenetic characteristics.

Concepts: Genetics

19

BACKGROUND: There is some evidence that singing lessons may be of benefit to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is not clear how much of this benefit is specific to singing and how much relates to the classes being a group activity that addresses social isolation. METHODS: Patients were randomised to either singing classes or a film club for eight weeks. Response was assessed quantitatively through health status questionnaires, measures of breathing control, exercise capacity and physical activity and qualitatively, through structured interviews with a clinical psychologist. RESULTS: The singing group (n=13 mean(SD) FEV1 44.4(14.4)%predicted) and film group (n=11 FEV1 63.5(25.5)%predicted) did not differ significantly at baseline. There was a significant difference between the response of the physical component score of the SF-36, favouring the singing group +12.9(19.0) vs -0.25(11.9) (p=0.02), but no difference in response of the mental component score of the SF-36, breathing control measures, exercise capacity or daily physical activity. In the qualitative element, positive effects on physical well-being were reported in the singing group but not the film group. CONCLUSION: Singing classes have an impact on health status distinct from that achieved simply by taking part in a group activity.Trials registrationRegistration Current Controlled Trials - ISRCTN17544114.

Concepts: Health care, Psychology, Medicine, Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Asthma, Randomized controlled trial, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

15

Clinical guidelines specify that diagnosis of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) requires identification of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern. While UIP can be identified by high resolution CT of the chest, the results are often inconclusive, making surgical lung biopsy necessary to reach a definitive diagnosis (Raghu et al., Am J Respir Crit Care Med 183(6):788-824, 2011). The Envisia genomic classifier differentiates UIP from non-UIP pathology in transbronchial biopsies (TBB), potentially allowing patients to avoid an invasive procedure (Brown et al., Am J Respir Crit Care Med 195:A6792, 2017). To ensure patient safety and efficacy, a laboratory developed test (LDT) must meet strict regulatory requirements for accuracy, reproducibility and robustness. The analytical characteristics of the Envisia test are assessed and reported here.

Concepts: Pulmonology, Lung, Pneumonia, Pathology, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Pulmonary fibrosis, Interstitial lung disease, Usual interstitial pneumonia