SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: BMC medical imaging

169

BACKGROUND: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is increasingly used in various diseases as a clinical tool for assessing the integrity of the brain’s white matter. Reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and an increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) are nonspecific findings in most pathological processes affecting the brain’s parenchyma. At present, there is no gold standard for validating diffusion measures, which are dependent on the scanning protocols, methods of the softwares and observers. Therefore, the normal variation and repeatability effects on commonly-derived measures should be carefully examined. METHODS: Thirty healthy volunteers (mean age 37.8 years, SD 11.4) underwent DTI of the brain with 3T MRI. Region-of-interest (ROI) -based measurements were calculated at eleven anatomical locations in the pyramidal tracts, corpus callosum and frontobasal area. Two ROI-based methods, the circular method (CM) and the freehand method (FM), were compared. Both methods were also compared by performing measurements on a DTI phantom. The intra- and inter-observer variability (coefficient of variation, or CV%) and repeatability (intra-class correlation coefficient, or ICC) were assessed for FA and ADC values obtained using both ROI methods. RESULTS: The mean FA values for all of the regions were 0.663 with the CM and 0.621 with the FM. For both methods, the FA was highest in the splenium of the corpus callosum. The mean ADC value was 0.727 x10-3 mm2/s with the CM and 0.747 x10-3 mm2/s with the FM, and both methods found the ADC to be lowest in the corona radiata. The CV percentages of the derived measures were < 13% with the CM and < 10% with the FM. In most of the regions, the ICCs were excellent or moderate for both methods. With the CM, the highest ICC for FA was in the posterior limb of the internal capsule (0.90), and with the FM, it was in the corona radiata (0.86). For ADC, the highest ICC was found in the genu of the corpus callosum (0.93) with the CM and in the uncinate fasciculus (0.92) with FM. CONCLUSIONS: With both ROI-based methods variability was low and repeatability was moderate. The circular method gave higher repeatability, but variation was slightly lower using the freehand method. The circular method can be recommended for the posterior limb of the internal capsule and splenium of the corpus callosum, and the freehand method for the corona radiata.

Concepts: Brain, Neuroimaging, Magnetic resonance imaging, Cerebrum, Diffusion, Diffusion MRI, Corpus callosum, Atomic diffusion

26

A bone scan is a common method for monitoring bone metastases in patients with advanced prostatecancer. The Bone Scan Index (BSI) measures the tumor burden on the skeleton, expressed as apercentage of the total skeletal mass. Previous studies have shown that BSI is associated withsurvival of prostate cancer patients. The objective in this study was to investigate to what extentregional BSI measurements, as obtained by an automated method, can improve the survival analysisfor advanced prostate cancer.

Concepts: Bone, Vitamin D, Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Prostate cancer, Human skeleton, Skeleton

5

This study was performed to assess changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) over time in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

3

To evaluate a reduced range CT protocol in patients with suspected acute appendicitis as compared to standard abdominal CT regarding diagnostic performance, effective radiation dose and organ doses.

3

Functional transcanial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD) is a convenient approach to examine cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in major cerebral arteries.

Concepts: Medical ultrasound, Hematology, Middle cerebral artery, Anterior cerebral artery, Medical ultrasonography, Cerebral blood flow

3

The diagnosis of hip pain after total hip replacement (THR) represents a highly challenging question that is of increasing concern to orthopedic surgeons. This retrospective study assesses bone scintigraphy with Hybrid SPECT/CT for the diagnosis of painful THR in a selected cohort of patients.

Concepts: Hip replacement, Hip, Pelvis, Orthopedic surgery, Joint replacement, John Charnley

3

Concerns have been raised regarding growth in advanced diagnostic imaging use. This study evaluated trends in national outpatient MRI/CT utilization rates during 2000-2009 and factors associated with utilization.

Concepts: Utilization, Capacity utilization

2

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of upper and lower motor neurons. There is a need for an imaging biomarker to track disease progression. Previously, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown loss of grey and white matter in the brain of patients with ALS compared to controls. We performed serial diffusion tractography imaging (DTI) study of patients with ALS looking for changes over time.

2

The inflammation reaction in the brain may stimulate damage repair or possibly lead to secondary brain injury. It is often associated with activated microglia, which would overexpress 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO). In this study, we successfully developed a new TSPO radioligand, [18F]-2-(4-fluoro-2-(p-tolyloxy)phenyl)-1,2-dihydroisoquinolin-3(4H)-one ([18F]FTPQ), and evaluate its potential to noninvasively detect brain changes in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease (PD).

2

Myxoid tumors pose diagnostic challenges for radiologists and pathologists. All myxoid tumors can be differentiated from each other using fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) or immunohistochemical markers, except for myxomas and myxofibrosarcomas. Myxomas and myxofibrosarcomas are rare tumors. Myxomas are benign and histologically bland, whereas myxofibrosarcomas are malignant and histologically heterogenous. Because of the histological heterogeneity, low grade myxofibrosarcomas may be mistaken for myxomas on core needle biopsies. We evaluated the performance of T1-weighted signal intensity (T1SI), tumor volume, and radiomic features extracted from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to differentiate myxomas from myxofibrosarcomas.