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Journal: Auris, nasus, larynx


MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous short non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by repressing translation or cleaving RNA transcripts in a sequence-specific manner. Bioinformatic analyses predict that miRNAs regulate more than 30% of protein coding genes. To date, 1921 human mature miRNAs have been registered in miRBase release 18.0 ( A growing body of evidence suggests that miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in many human carcinomas and that they play key roles in the initiation, development and metastasis of human cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In this review, eight genome-wide miRNA expression profiles were used to selected aberrantly expressed miRNAs (up-regulated and down-regulated miRNAs) in HNSCC clinical specimens including our miRNA profiles of hypopharyngeal and maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma. We discuss recent findings on the aberrant expression of miRNAs and their contribution to human HNSCC oncogenesis.

Concepts: Molecular biology, MicroRNA, RNA, Squamous cell carcinoma, Gene expression, DNA, Cancer, Gene


We present a case with outspoken spontaneous vestibular schwannoma shrinkage and review the related literature. The patient was initially diagnosed with a left-sided, intrameatal vestibular schwannoma, which subsequently grew into the cerebello-pontine angle (CPA), followed by total shrinkage of the CPA component without any intervention over a 12-year observation period. The literature on spontaneous tumor shrinkage was retrieved by searching the subject terms “vestibular schwannoma, conservative management” in PubMed/MEDLINE database, without a time limit. Of the published data, the articles on “shrinkage” or “negative growth” or “regression” or “involution” of the tumor were selected, and the contents on the rate, extent and mechanism of spontaneous tumor shrinkage were extracted and reviewed. The reported rate of spontaneous shrinkage of vestibular schwannoma is 5-10% of patients managed conservatively. Extreme shrinkage of the tumor may occur spontaneously.

Concepts: Limit superior and limit inferior, Schwannoma, Spontaneous human combustion, Real number, Subject, Conservatism, Patient, Time


OBJECTIVE: Vascular malformations may appear anywhere in the body; 14-65% are in the head and neck. There are several treatments (sclerotherapy, surgery, laser treatment, and embolization, etc.), but standardized guidelines for these treatments are lacking. We conducted a retrospective review of venous or capillary malformations of the head and neck, and analyzed the epidemiology, pathology and treatment. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 67 patients with pathologically diagnosed venous or capillary malformations of the head and neck; we analyzed the location, pathology and treatment, as well as recurrent/residual cases. RESULTS: The oral cavity (59%) and nasal cavity (35%) were the most common locations. The frequency of each pathological type depended upon location. Surgery was undertaken in 65 cases, and sclerotherapy done in one patient. Sixty-one cases (92%) had resectable lesions. However polycystic masses (≥3 cysts) and large masses (diameter, ≥5cm) were significantly difficult to cure by single treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Surgery is indicated for localized small vascular malformations. However if the lesions ≥5cm or polycystic lesions were more likely to recur after surgery alone in our study population.

Concepts: Medical school, Surgery, Biology, Laser, Anatomical pathology, Pathology, Hospital, Head and neck anatomy


OBJECTIVES: Meniere’s disease is a common inner ear disease characterized by vertigo, hearing loss and tinnitus. Since Meniere’s disease is thought to be triggered by an immune insult to inner ear hydrops, we examined endolymphatic sac drainage with intra-endolymphatic sac application of large doses of steroids for intractable Meniere’s patients and observed long-term results from 2 years to over a decade until 13 years. METHODS: Between 1998 and 2009, we enrolled and assigned 286 intractable Meniere’s patients to two groups: group-I (G-I) included patients who underwent endolymphatic sac drainage with steroid instillation and group-II (G-II) included those who declined endolymphatic sac drainage. Definitive spells and hearing improvement in these two groups were determined for 2-13 years after treatment. RESULTS: According to the established criteria, vertigo was completely controlled in 88% of patients in G-I in the 2nd year, in 73% in the 12th year and in 70% in the 13th year. These results in G-I were significantly better than those in G-II for 13 years after treatment. Hearing was improved in 49% of patients in G-I in the 2nd year, in 27% in the 12th year and in 25% in the 13th year. These results in G-I were significantly better than those in G-II for 12 years after treatment, but this was not significant in the 13th year. CONCLUSIONS: Endolymphatic sac drainage with intra-endolymphatic sac application of large doses of steroids could improve long-term follow-up results of hearing as well as vertigo control. This means that the drainage with local steroids could also improve patients' long-term quality in the prime of life.

Concepts: Friday the 13th, Improve, Inner ear, Endolymph, Better, Ménière's disease, Tinnitus, Ear


The study aimed to assess the usefulness of skull base surgery for large juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) with lateral extension to the infratemporal fossa.

Concepts: Infratemporal crest, Infratemporal fossa


While the biological behavior of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) has been studied in great detail using clinical experience, few studies have investigated pre- or intraoperative factors related to the risk of distant metastasis (DM) among patients with FTC. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of FTC with DM.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Types of cancer, Thyroid disease, Cancer, Cultural studies, Oncology


Identifying anatomical variations associated with pathological findings is very useful for diagnoses and therapeutics. We conducted a study to detect various anatomical variations (superior, middle, inferior turbinate concha bullosa, uncinate bulla and nasal swell body [NSB]) in connection with nasal septal deviation.

Concepts: Frédéric Chopin, Carl Czerny, Medicine, Radiology, Biology, Medical school, Anatomical terms of location, Anatomy


A major role of the innate immunity in the defence of mucosal tissue is well established. However, a balance between the main components of the immunity such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) and defensins in the pathology of upper respiratory tract in children has not been addressed yet. Our aim was to investigate the gene expression of some TLRs as well as alpha and beta-defensins in children suffered from adenoid hyperthrophy in comparison with healthy children.

Concepts: Upper respiratory tract, Gene, Genetics, Organism, Tissues, Respiratory system, Immune system, Innate immune system


To provide an evidence-based recommendation for the management of olfactory dysfunction in accordance with the consensus reached by the Subcommittee of the Japanese Clinical Practice Guideline for olfactory dysfunction in the Japanese Rhinologic Society.


Malignant myoepitheliomas (MM) (myoepithelial carcinomas) are rare tumors representing <1% of salivary gland tumors. They are characterized as being locally aggressive. Rarely do they present distant metastases; however, when they do metastasize the sites most affected are the lungs, liver, pleura, peritoneum and skin. They may originate de novo in a pleomorphic adenoma or a benign myoepithelioma. We report the case of a patient with a submucosal lesion of the soft palate measuring ∼4cm×3cm. The patient underwent transoral resection with a microscope and CO laser. Histopathological report was MM originating in a pleomorphic adenoma. Management of this neoplasm is controversial. Myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare neoplasm whose diagnosis includes immunohistochemical (IHC) studies. Surgery is the cornerstone of treatment. Management with laser surgery may preserve the function of the soft palate without deterioration of the quality of life in these patients.

Concepts: Patient, Mouth, Adenocarcinoma, Epithelium, Lung cancer, Oncology, Anatomical pathology, Cancer