SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Asian journal of psychiatry

29

Role of l-5-hydroxytryptophan (l-5-HTP) in depression is relatively less studied but the literature has shown its robust role in depression. The present randomized double blind study was undertaken to assess the role of l-5-HTP as an antidepressant and to compare its antidepressant efficacy with fluoxetine in first depressive episode patients of Indian population.

Concepts: Citalopram, Major depressive disorder, Serotonin, Paroxetine, Venlafaxine, Fluoxetine, Sertraline, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

28

Specific cortico-striato-thalamic circuits are hypothesised to underlie the aetiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, findings from neuroimaging studies have been inconsistent. In the current study, we attempted to provide a complete overview of structural alterations in OCD by conducting signed differential mapping (SDM) meta-analysis on grey matter and white matter studies of patients with OCD based on voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies.

Concepts: Thermodynamics, Voxel-based morphometry, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Imaging, Neuroimaging

27

A combination of factors such as substance abuse problems, medication noncompliance, and insufficient insight are generally known to increase the risk of violent behavior. However, little is known regarding the psychological impact on caregivers who are traumatized by the violent behavior of a family member with schizophrenia. Therefore, we carried out an investigation to measure this impact.

Concepts: Psychology, Violence, Family therapy, Terrorism

26

The present study describes “Djinnati,” a culture-bound syndrome and examines its prevalence and demographic attributes such as age, gender and education level in the rural population of Baluchistan in southeast Iran.

Concepts: Rural, Present, Population

23

This pilot study examined the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of using an online computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating Chinese patients with depression.

Concepts: Behaviour therapy, Behaviorism, Psychology, Cognitive behavioral therapy

22

Depression and anxiety are common psychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is lack of data on comorbid depression and anxiety, and depression and anxiety in TBI patients were often evaluated using non-validated diagnostic tools. This study aims to determine the rates, their comorbidity, and factors associated with depressive and anxiety disorders in TBI patients.

14

The COVID-19 pandemic is a major health crisis affecting several nations, with over 720,000 cases and 33,000 confirmed deaths reported to date. Such widespread outbreaks are associated with adverse mental health consequences. Keeping this in mind, existing literature on the COVID-19 outbreak pertinent to mental health was retrieved via a literature search of the PubMed database. Published articles were classified according to their overall themes and summarized. Preliminary evidence suggests that symptoms of anxiety and depression (16-28%) and self-reported stress (8%) are common psychological reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic, and may be associated with disturbed sleep. A number of individual and structural variables moderate this risk. In planning services for such populations, both the needs of the concerned people and the necessary preventive guidelines must be taken into account. The available literature has emerged from only a few of the affected countries, and may not reflect the experience of persons living in other parts of the world. In conclusion, subsyndromal mental health problems are a common response to the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a need for more representative research from other affected countries, particularly in vulnerable populations.

13

The world is reeling under the crisis caused by corona virus disease (COVID-19), print, electronic and social media are flooded with numerous advisories issued by governments and other national & international agencies. While all this is being done with best of intentions so as to contain the spread of this viral disease, this is causing a significant negative impact on mental health of people specially person of obsessive-compulsive disorder with fear of contamination and excessive washing of hands.

9

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is one of the most common and debilitating mental disorders; however, its etiology remains unclear. This paper aims to summarize the major neurobiological underpinnings of depression, synthesizing the findings into a comprehensive integrated view. A literature review was conducted using Pubmed. Search terms included “depression” or “MDD” AND “biology”, “neurobiology”, “inflammation”, “neurogenesis”, “monoamine”, and “stress”. Articles from 1995 to 2016 were reviewed with a focus on the connection between different biological and psychological models. Some possible pathophysiological mechanisms of depression include altered neurotransmission, HPA axis abnormalities involved in chronic stress, inflammation, reduced neuroplasticity, and network dysfunction. All of these proposed mechanisms are integrally related and interact bidirectionally. In addition, psychological factors have been shown to have a direct effect on neurodevelopment, causing a biological predisposition to depression, while biological factors can lead to psychological pathology as well. The authors suggest that while it is possible that there are several different endophenotypes of depression with distinct pathophysiological mechanisms, it may be helpful to think of depression as one united syndrome, in which these mechanisms interact as nodes in a matrix. Depressive disorders are considered in the context of the RDoC paradigm, identifying the pathological mechanisms at every translational level, with a focus on how these mechanisms interact. Finally, future directions of research are identified.

Concepts: Serotonin, Suicide, Neuroscience, Dysthymia, Psychiatry, Pathology, Psychology, Major depressive disorder

4

The world is experiencing pandemic of the COVID-19 now, a RNA virus that spread out from Wuhan, China. Two countries, China first and later Italy, have gone to full lock down due to rapid spread of this virus. Till to date, no epidemiological data on mental health problems due to outbreak of the COVID-19 and mass isolation were not available. To meet this need, the present study was undertaken to assess the mental health status of Chinese people. An online survey was conducted on a sample of 1074 Chinese people, majority of whom from Hubei province. Lack of adequate opportunities to conduct face to face interview, anxiety, depression, mental well-being and alcohol consumption behavior were assessed via self-reported measures. Results showed higher rate of anxiety, depression, hazardous and harmful alcohol use, and lower mental wellbeing than usual ratio. Results also revealed that young people aged 21-40 years are in more vulnerable position in terms of their mental health conditions and alcohol use. To address mental health crisis during this epidemic, it is high time to implement multi-faceted approach (i.e. forming multidisciplinary mental health team, providing psychiatric treatments and other mental health services, utilizing online counseling platforms, rehabilitation program, ensuring certain care for vulnerable groups, etc.).