Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Archives of plastic surgery


Nipple-areolar complex (NAC) reconstruction following curative mastectomy is traditionally performed as a second-stage procedure several months after initial breast reconstruction. The recent literature has documented the increasing popularity of immediate nipple reconstruction carried out simultaneously during autologous reconstruction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical outcomes and patient satisfaction with immediate breast and nipple reconstruction performed in a single stage after skin-sparing mastectomy.


Nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) is increasingly popular as a procedure for the treatment of breast cancer and as a prophylactic procedure for those at high risk of developing the disease. However, it remains a controversial option due to questions regarding its oncological safety and concerns regarding locoregional recurrence. This systematic review with a pooled analysis examines the current literature regarding NSM, including locoregional recurrence and complication rates. Systematic electronic searches were conducted using the PubMed database and the Ovid database for studies reporting the indications for NSM and the subsequent outcomes. Studies between January 1970 and January 2015 (inclusive) were analysed if they met the inclusion criteria. Pooled descriptive statistics were performed. Seventy-three studies that met the inclusion criteria were included in the analysis, yielding 12,358 procedures. After a mean follow up of 38 months (range, 7.4-156 months), the overall pooled locoregional recurrence rate was 2.38%, the overall complication rate was 22.3%, and the overall incidence of nipple necrosis, either partial or total, was 5.9%. Significant heterogeneity was found among the published studies and patient selection was affected by tumour characteristics. We concluded that NSM appears to be an oncologically safe option for appropriately selected patients, with low rates of locoregional recurrence. For NSM to be performed, tumours should be peripherally located, smaller than 5 cm in diameter, located more than 2 cm away from the nipple margin, and human epidermal growth factor 2-negative. A separate histopathological examination of the subareolar tissue and exclusion of malignancy at this site is essential for safe oncological practice. Long-term follow-up studies and prospective cohort studies are required in order to determine the best reconstructive methods.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Oncology, Epidermal growth factor, Tumor, Breast, PubMed, Inclusion


A foreign body granuloma is a non-allergic chronic inflammatory reaction that is mainly composed of multinucleated giant cells. Foreign body granulomas may occur after the administration of any dermal filler. Factors such as the volume of the injection, impurities present in the fillers, and the physical properties of fillers affect granuloma formation. The formation of granulomas involves five phases: protein adsorption, macrophage adhesion, macrophage fusion, and crosstalk. The clinical and pathologic features of granulomas vary depending on the type of filler that causes them. Foreign body granulomas can be treated effectively with intralesional corticosteroid injections. Surgical excisions of granulomas tend to be incomplete because granulomas have ill-defined borders and moreover, surgical excisions may leave scars and deformities.

Concepts: Inflammation, Medicine, Granuloma


Skin flap necrosis is a common complication after mastectomy and breast reconstruction. It has been proven that nitroglycerin ointment, as a topical vasodilator, can decrease the rate of skin flap necrosis after mastectomy and breast reconstruction. However, nitroglycerin can cause several side effects, including headache, dizziness, and hypotension. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the application of a low dose of nitroglycerin ointment reduced the rate of skin flap necrosis in breast reconstruction after skin-sparing or nipple-sparing mastectomy.

Concepts: Effect, Effectiveness, Plastic surgery, Breast, Effects unit, Breast implant, Nitroglycerin, Glyceryl trinitrate


Rupture is an important complication of breast implants. Before cohesive gel silicone implants, rupture rates of both saline and silicone breast implants were over 10%. Through an analysis of ruptured implants, we can determine the various factors related to ruptured implants.

Concepts: Plastic surgery, Breast reconstruction, Silicone, Breast implant


Facial palsy has a broad clinical presentation and the effects on psychosocial interaction and facial functions can be devastating. Pediatric facial palsy, in particular, introduces unique familial and technical considerations as anatomy, future growth potential, and patient participation influence treatment planning. Though some etiologies of pediatric facial palsy are self-limiting, congenital and long-standing facial palsies pose difficult challenges that require a combination of surgical, adjunctive, and rehabilitative techniques to achieve facial reanimation. Given the spectrum of ages and symptom severity, as well as the various surgical options available for facial palsy, a tailored approach needs to be developed for each child to restore facial balance and function. Here, we review the etiologies, workup, and treatment of pediatric facial palsy and present our novel algorithmic approach to treatment.


Severe cartilage defects and congenital anomalies affect millions of people and involve considerable medical expenses. Tissue engineering offers many advantages over conventional treatments, as therapy can be tailored to specific defects using abundant bioengineered resources. This article introduces the basic concepts of cartilage tissue engineering and reviews recent progress in the field, with a focus on craniofacial reconstruction and facial aesthetics. The basic concepts of tissue engineering consist of cells, scaffolds, and stimuli. Generally, the cartilage tissue engineering process includes the following steps: harvesting autologous chondrogenic cells, cell expansion, redifferentiation, in vitro incubation with a scaffold, and transfer to patients. Despite the promising prospects of cartilage tissue engineering, problems and challenges still exist due to certain limitations. The limited proliferation of chondrocytes and their tendency to dedifferentiate necessitate further developments in stem cell technology and chondrocyte molecular biology. Progress should be made in designing fully biocompatible scaffolds with a minimal immune response to regenerate tissue effectively.


Some patients who need surgery refuse a blood transfusion because of their religious beliefs or concerns about blood-borne infections. In recent years, bloodless surgery has been performed successfully in many procedures, and is therefore of increasing interest in orthognathic surgery.


Excessive bleeding is one of the most severe complications of orthognathic surgery (OGS). This study investigated the associations of intraoperative blood loss and surgical time with the direction of maxillary movement.


This study evaluated the Blossom system, an innovative self-filling, rate-controlled, pressure-responsive saline tissue expander (TE) system. We investigated the feasibility of utilizing this technology to facilitate implant-based and combined flap with implant-based breast reconstruction in comparison to conventional tissue expansion.